Shivering in Aerobic and Anaerobic Muscles in Bantams (Gallus Domesticus)

  • Arnfinn Aulie
  • Øivind Tøien
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIAS, volume 173)


Since shivering seems to be the main thermoregulatory heat producing mechanism in resting birds (Palogangas and Hissa, 1971; Calder and King, 1974; Hohtola, 1982), shivering should be present at ambient temperatures (Ta) below the lower critical temperature (Tc). In willow ptarmigan, the pectoral muscle shivered at Tc (West, 1972; Aulie, 1976). In the bantam hen, however, Ta had to be decreased to 20°C, or 4° C below Tc, before any EMG-activity could be detected in the pectoral muscle (Aulie, 1976; T0ien et al., 1986). This difference could be due to the fact that the ptarmigan pectoral muscle contains only aerobic fibers (Type IIA) (Grammeltvedt, 1978) while in the bantams it contains anaerobic fibers (Type IIB) (McNaughtan, 1974).


Heat Production Japanese Quail Pectoral Muscle Plexiglass Chamber Lower Critical Temperature 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnfinn Aulie
    • 1
  • Øivind Tøien
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyVeterinary College of NorwayOsloNorway

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