Shivering and Nonshivering Thermogenesis in Birds: A Mammalian View
Homeothermia, the ability to maintain a stable body temperature which is higher than that of the environment, is only found in two classes of animals, mammals and birds. Both of these groups of animals must have well-developed and accurately controlled thermoregulatory mechanisms allowing them to survive not only in a wide variety of habitats, but also in regions where diurnal or seasonal temperature fluctuations may be large. Whereas regulatory thermogenesis in mammals has been the object of intense investigation, the relative importance of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis in birds has been much less studied. This review will attempt to draw attention to several basic principles learned from the mammalian studies which may be applied in order to obtain a further understanding of thermoregulation in birds. Several comprehensive reviews have appeared dealing with other aspects of thermoregulation in birds (Dawson et al., 1983; Hissa, 1988).
KeywordsBrown Adipose Tissue Cold Acclimation Basal Metabolic Rate Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrion Blood Flow Study
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