Energy Saving in Incubating Eiders

  • Geir Wing Gabrielsen
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIAS, volume 173)


During the last decade many estimates have been made of the energy cost during incubation in free living birds. The two methods most often used to determine energy expenditure during incubation are loss of body mass (Prince et al. 1981, Croxall 1982, Croxall and Ricketts 1983, Grant and Whittow 1983) or measurements of oxygen consumption (Norton 1973, Biebach 1979. Gessaman and Findell 1979, Vleck 1981, Haftorn and Reinertsen 1985. Gabrielsen and Unander 1987). While most studies have been performed in the laboratory there are few on free-living birds on the nest site (Grant and Whittow 1983, Brown 1984, Brown and Adams 1984).


Rest Metabolic Rate Daily Energy Expenditure Metabolic Measurement King Penguin Common Eider 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geir Wing Gabrielsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyNorwegian Polar Research InstituteOslo LufthavnNorway

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