Respiratory Responses of the Mallard to External and Internal Cooling

  • Hege Johannesen
  • Claus Bech
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIAS, volume 173)


In some species of birds, simultaneous measurements of ventilation and oxygen consumption have shown that oxygen extraction increases with the increase in metabolic rate induced by cold exposure (Bucher, 1981; Brent et al., 1983, 1984; Bech et al., 1984). In addition, measurements of the oxygen content in the interclavicular air sac of Pekin ducks, indicate that oxygen extraction improves at low ambient temperatures (Bech et al., 1984). A more efficient gas exchange under cold conditions has an obvious thermoregulatory significance, because a decreased air convection requirement implies a reduction in the respiratory heat and water losses.


Cold Exposure Oxygen Extraction External Cool Metabolic Heat Production Internal Cool 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hege Johannesen
    • 1
  • Claus Bech
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of TrondheimDragvollNorway

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