Gas Exchange during Cold Exposure in Pekin Ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos)

  • Claus Bech
  • Hege Johannesen
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIAS, volume 173)


In homeotherms, the inhaled air is warmed during inspiration, while during expiration heat and water, to a variable degree, is lost via the exhaled air. Ventilation will consequently always exert an influence on body temperature regulation. Despite the importance of ventilation for both gas exchange and body temperature regulation, only little is known so far about the function of the gas exchange system at ambient temperatures which present a thermoregulatory challenge, i. e. temperatures beyond the thermoneutral range. Several studies have dealt with the respiratory responses to high ambient temperatures, e. g. panting, but surprisingly few studies have been concerned with respiration at low ambient temperatures.


Oxygen Uptake Cold Exposure Oxygen Extraction Body Temperature Regulation Pekin Duck 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claus Bech
    • 1
  • Hege Johannesen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of TrondheimDragvollNorway

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