Interaction of Dietary Protein and Trypsin Inhibitor on Plasma Cholecystokinin and Pancreatic Growth in Rats

  • Gary M. Green
  • Van H. Levan
  • Rodger A. Liddle
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 199)


Pancreatic exocrine secretion in the rat is inhibited by trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase in the proximal small intestine (Green and Lyman, 1972; Schneeman and Lyman, 1973; Green and Levan, 1985). Recent studies have supported the hypothesis that this negative feedback control of pancreatic secretion is mediated by cholecystokinin (CCK). Orogastric administration of trypsin inhibitors to rats caused a transient reduction of intestinal levels of CCK (Brand and Morgan, 1981) and greatly increased plasma levels of CCK (Liddle, Goldfine and Williams, 1984). Diversion of bile-pancreatic juice from the intestine increased plasma CCK levels, which were returned to normal by intraduodenal infusion of trypsin (Louie et al, 1985; Fölsh et al, 1984). The mechanism by which pancreatic proteases inhibit CCK release is not known. Miyasaka and Green (1983) hypothesized that trypsin inhibited pancreatic secretion by inactivating an intraluminally-secreted peptide, possibly a CCK-releasing factor.


Dietary Protein Trypsin Inhibitor Pancreatic Secretion Pancreatic Enzyme Secretion Amino Acid Availability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Booth, A. N., Robbins, D. J., Ribelin, W. E., and DeEds, F., 1960, Effect of raw soybean meal and amino acids on pancreatic hypertrophy in rats, Proc Soc Exptl Biol Med., 104:681–683.Google Scholar
  2. Brand, S. J., and Morgan, R. G. H., 1981, The release of rat intestinal cholecystokinin after oral trypsin inhibitor measured by bio-assay, J Physiol., 319:325–353.Google Scholar
  3. Fölsh, U. R., Wilms, H., Schafmayer, A., and Becker, H. D., 1984, The negative feedback mechanism of pancreatic enzyme secretion is accompanied by elevated CCK-plasma concentrations, (Abstract) Dig Dis Sci., 29:949.Google Scholar
  4. Green, G. M., and Levan, V. H., 1985, Inhibition of rat pancreatic secretion by elastase, IRCS Med Sci., 13:153–154.Google Scholar
  5. Green, G. M., Levan, V. H., and Liddle, R., 1984, Relationship between plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic growth and food intake during adaptation of rats to a high protein diet, (Abstract) Dig Dis Sci., 29:31S.Google Scholar
  6. Green, G. M., Levan, V. H., and Liddle, R. A., 1985, Plasma cholecystokinin and pancreatic growth during adaptation to dietary protein, (Submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  7. Green, G. M., and Lyman, R. L., 1972, Feedback regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion as a mechanism for trypsin inhibitor-induced hypersecretion in rats, Proc Soc Exptl Biol Med., 140:6–12.Google Scholar
  8. Green, G. M., Olds, B. A., Matthews, G., and Lyman, R. L., 1973, Protein as a regulator of pancreatic enzyme secretion in the rat, Proc Soc Exptl Biol Med., 142:1162–1167.Google Scholar
  9. Green, G. M., and Miyasaka, K., 1983, Rat pancreatic response to intestinal infusion of intact and hydrolyzed protein, Am J Physiol., 245:G394–G398.Google Scholar
  10. Green, G. M., and Nasset, E. S., 1980, Importance of bile in regulation of intraluminal proteolytic enzyme activities in the rat, Gastroenterology, 79:695–702.Google Scholar
  11. Green, G. M., and Nasset, E. S., 1983, Role of dietary protein in the rat pancreatic enzyme secretory response to a meal, J Nutr., 113: 2245–2252.Google Scholar
  12. Gumbmann, M. R., Spangler, W. L., Dugan, G. M., Rackis, J. J., and Liener, I. E., The chronic effects of soy flour and soy protein isolate on the pancreas in rats after two years, “The USDA Trypsin Inhibitor Study, IV”, Qual. Plant. Plant Foods Hum Nutr., 35:275–314, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Howatson, A. G., and Carter, P. C., 1985, Pancreatic carcinogenesis-enhancement by cholecystokinin in the hamster-nitrosamine model, Br J Cancer, 51:107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson, A., Hurwitz, R., and Kretchmer, N., 1977, Adaptation of rat pancreatic amylase and chymotrypsinogen to changes in diet, J Nutr., 107:87–96.Google Scholar
  15. Kakade, M. L., Hoffa, P. E., and Liener, I. E., 1973, Contribution of trypsin inhibitors to the deleterious effects of unheated soybeans fed to rats, J Nutr., 193:1772–1778.Google Scholar
  16. Liddle, R. A., Goldfine, I. D., and Williams, J. A., 1984, Bioassay of plasma cholecystokinin in rats: Effects of food, trypsin inhibitor and alcohol, Gastroenterology, 87:542–549.Google Scholar
  17. Liddle, R. A., Goldfine, I. D., Rosen, M. S., Taplitz, R. A., and Williams, J. A., 1985, Cholecystokinin bioactivity in human plasma. Molecular forms, responses to feeding, and relationship to gallbladder contraction, J Clin Invest., 75:1144–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liddle, R. A., Green, G. M., Conrad, C. K., and Williams, J. A., 1985b, CCK response to food is species specific: fat and amino acids do not stimulate CCK release in the rat, Gastroenterology, 88:1476, (abstract).Google Scholar
  19. Liddle, R. A., Green, G. M., Conrad, C. K., and Williams, J. A., 1985c, Proteins but not amino acids, carbohydrates, or fats stimulate cholecystokinin secretion in the rat. (Submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  20. Louie, D., May, D., Miller, P., and Owyang, C., 1985, Cholecystokinin mediates feedback regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion: involvement of cholinergic mechanism, (Abstract), Gastroenterology, 88:1481.Google Scholar
  21. McGuinnes, E. E., Morgan, R. G. H., Levison, D. A., Hopwood, D., and Wormsley, K. G., 1981, Interaction of azaserine and raw soya flour on the rat pancreas, Scand J Gastroent., 16:49–56.Google Scholar
  22. Miyasaka, K., and Green, G. M., 1983, Effect of rapid washout of proximal small intestine on pancreatic secretion in conscious rat (Abstract), Gastroenterology, 84:1251.Google Scholar
  23. Schneeman, B. O., and Lyman, R. L., 1975, Factors influencing the feedback mechanism controlling pancreatic enzyme secretion in rats, Proc Soc Exptl Biol Med., 148:897–903.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary M. Green
    • 1
  • Van H. Levan
    • 1
  • Rodger A. Liddle
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Cell Biology LaboratoryMt. Zion Hospital and Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations