Advertisement

Early Lesions of the Human Mammary Gland and their Relationship to Precancerous Lesions of Other Species

  • S. R. Wellings
  • M. DeVault
  • Virginia Jenfoft
  • J. Richards
  • J. Yang
  • S. Nandi
  • R. Guzman
  • L. J. Faulkin

Abstract

Preneoplastic pathological lesions are tissue formations possessing an increased probability of developing neoplasia in comparison to the probability that the corresponding type of neoplasm will develop in adjacent morphologically normal tissue. Lesions with presumed preneoplastic potential have been described in the mammary glands of mice, rats, dogs, subhuman primates, and humans. In every instance the lesions stand out from the normal background as focal, multicentric, and hyperplastic. The epithelial cells of preneoplastic lesions have variable degrees of so-called premalignant atypia (anaplasia), and on this basis can be arranged in an arbitrary morphological continuum linking normal to pre-invasive carcinoma. In mice there is direct experimental proof that more cancers arise from precancerous mammary tissue than from normal tissue. In the human, however, techniques for such direct observation are not as yet perfected and the assignment of risk to particular focal lesions of the human breast is basea on morphological and statistical inference.

Keywords

Mammary Gland Mammary Tumor Early Lesion Preneoplastic Lesion Mammary Tumorigenesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Apolant, H., 1906, Die epithelialen Geschwülste der Maus. Arb. Kgl. Inst. Expt. Therapie, Frankfurt, pp. 11-62.Google Scholar
  2. Appleby, E.C., Keymer, I.F., and Hirne, J.M., 1974, Three cases of suspected mammary neoplasia in non-human primates. J. Comp. Pathol., 84, 351–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bentvelzen, P., 1974, Host-virus interactions in murine mammary carcinogenesis. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 355, 236–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bern, H.A., and Nandi, S., 1961, Recent studies of the hormonal influence in mouse mammary tumorigenesis. Prog. Exp. Tumor Res., 2, 90–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beuving, L.J., Bern, H.A., and DeOme, K.B., 1967a, Occurence and transplantation of carcinogeninduced hyperplastic nodules in Fischer rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 39, 431–447.Google Scholar
  6. Beuving, L.J., Faulkin, L.G., DeOme, K.B., and Bergs, V.V., 1967b, Hyperplastic lesions in the mammary glands of Sprague-Dawley rats after 7,12 dimethylbenz (a) anthracene treatment. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 39, 423–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beuving, L.J., 1968, Mammary tumor formation within outgrowths of transplanted hyperplastic nodules from carcinogen-treated rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 40, 1287–1291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Black, M.M., and Chabon, A.B., 1969, In situ carcinoma of the breast. In: Pathology Annual, S.C. Sommers ed., Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp. 185–210.Google Scholar
  9. Cameron, A.M., and Faulkin, L.J. Jr., 1971, Hyperplastic and inflammatory nodules in the canine mammary gland. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 47, 1277–1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cameron, A.M., and Faulkin, L.J., 1974, Subgross evaluation of the nonhuman primate mammary glands: Method and initial observations. J. Med. Primatol., 3, 298–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chopra, H.C., and Mason, M.M., 1970, A new virus in a spontaneous mammary tumor of a rhesus monkey. Cancer Res., 30, 2081–2086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. DeOme, K.B., Faulkin, L.J., Bern, H.A., and Blair, P.B., 1959, Development of mammary tumors from hyperplastic alveolar nodules transplanted-in the gland-free mammary fat pads of female C3H mice. Cancer Res., 19, 515–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. DeOme, K.B., and Medina, D., 1969, A new approach to mammary tumorigenesis in rodents. Cancer, 24, 1255–1258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dorn, C.R., Taylor, D.O.N., Frye, F.L., and Hibbard, H.H., 1968, Survey of animal neoplasms in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. II. Cancer morbidity in dogs and cats from Alameda County. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 40, 307–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Faulkin, L.J., Shellabarger, C.J., and DeOme, K.B., 1967, Hyperplastic lesions of Sprague-Dawley rat mammary glands after x-irradiation. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 39, 449–458.Google Scholar
  16. Foote, F.W., and Stewart, F.W., 1945, Comparative studies of cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. Ann. Surg., 121, 6–53, 197-222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fowler, E.H., Wilson, G.P., and Koestner, A., 1974, Biologic behavior of canine mammary neoplasms based on a histogenetic classification. Vet. Pathol., 11, 212–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gallagher, H.S., and Martin, J.E., 1969, Early phases in the development of breast cancer. Cancer, 24, 1170–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Geschickter, C.F., 1945, Diseases of the breast: Diagnosis, Pathology and Treatment, Lippincott, Philadelphia, p. 413.Google Scholar
  20. Haaland, M., 1911, Spontaneous tumors in mice, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Great Britain, Fourth Scientific Report, Her Majesty’s Stat. Off., London, pp. 1-113.Google Scholar
  21. Heston, W., and Parks, W., 1975, Mouse mammary tumor virus and host genome in the transmission and causation of mammary tumors in mice. Can. J. Genet. Cytol., 17, 493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Heston, W.E., and Vlahakis, G., 1971, Mammary tumors, plaques and hyperplastic alveolar nodules in various combinations of mouse inbred strains and the different lines of the mammary tumor virus. Int. J. Cancer, 7, 141–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ingleby, H., and Gershon-Cohen, J., 1960, Comparative Anatomy, Pathology and Roentgenology of the Breast, Univ. Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 291–309.Google Scholar
  24. McDivitt, R.W., Stewart, F.W., and Berg, J.W., 1968, Tumors of the breast, in: Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Second Series, Fascicle 2, A.F.I.P., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  25. Medina, D., 1973, Preneoplastic lesions in mouse mammary tumorigenesis. In: Methods in Cancer Research, Vol. 7, H. Busch, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–53.Google Scholar
  26. Misdorp, W., Cotchin, E., Hampe, J.F., Jabara, A.G., and von Sandersleben, J., 1971, Canine malignant mammary tumors. I. Sarcomas. Vet. Pathol., 8, 99–117.Google Scholar
  27. Misdorp, W., Cotchin, E., Hampe, J.F., Jabara, A.G., and von Sandersleben, J., 1972, Canine malignant mammary tumors. II. Adenocarcinomas, solid carcinomas and spindle cell carcinomas. Vet. Pathol., 9, 447–470.Google Scholar
  28. Misdorp, W., Cotchin, E., Hampe, J.F., Jabara, A.G., and von Sandersleben, J., 1973, Canine malignant mammary tumors. III. Special types of carcinomas, malignant mixed tumors. Vet. Pathol., 10, 241–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nandi, S., and McGrath, C.M., 1973, Mammary neoplasia in mice. Adv. Cancer Res., 17, 353–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nelson, L.W., and Shott, L.D., 1973, Mammary nodular hyperplasia in intact rhesus monkeys. Vet. Pathol. 10, 130–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schneider, R., Dorn, C.R., and Taylor, D.O.N., 1969, Factors influencing canine mammary cancer development and postsurgical survival. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 43, 1249–1261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Speert, H., 1940, Hyperplastic mammary nodules in the castrate female rhesus monkey. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 67, 414–426.Google Scholar
  33. Weijer, K., Head, K.W., Misdorp, W.,and Hampe, J.F., 1972, Feline malignant mammary tumors. I. Morphology and biology: some comparisons with human and canine mammary carcinomas. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 49, 1697–1704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Wellings, S.R., Jensen, H.M., and Marcum, R.G., 1975, An atlas of subgross pathology of the human breast with special reference to precancerous lesions. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 55, 231–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wellings, S.R., and Rice, J.D., 1978, Preneoplastic lesions in the human breast. Cancer Campaign, Vol. 1, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, pp. 91–106.Google Scholar
  36. Wellings, S.R., and Wolfe, J.N., 1978, Correlative studies of the histological and radiographic appearance of the breast parenchyma. Radiology, 129, 299–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang, J., Richards, J., Bowman, P., Guzman, R., Enami, J., McCormick, K., Hamamoto, S., Pitelka, D., and Nandi, S., 1979, Sustained growth and 3-dimensional organization of primary mammary tumor epithelial cells embedded in collagen gels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 76(7), 3401–3405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. R. Wellings
    • 1
  • M. DeVault
    • 1
  • Virginia Jenfoft
    • 1
  • J. Richards
    • 2
  • J. Yang
    • 3
  • S. Nandi
    • 2
  • R. Guzman
    • 2
  • L. J. Faulkin
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Cancer Research LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations