Immunotherapy of Spontaneously Arising Rat Mammary Tumours

  • R. W. Baldwin
  • M. V. Pimm
  • N. Willmott


Numerous studies with experimentally-induced animal tumours have demonstrated the potential of introducing immunotherapy as a component in the treatment of human malignant disease (Baldwin and Pimm, 1978; Baldwin and Byers, 1979; Milas and Scott, 1977) and many clinical trials are currently in progress (Goodnight and Morton, 1978). But many of the experimental tumours used in designing immunotherapy protocols, e. g. carcinogen-induced tumours have been criticized as not being appropriate models for human malignant disease since they frequently express neoantigens which elicit strong rejection responses, whereas the clinical evidence for host immunity to human cancer is not fully substantiated (Castro, 1978). The studies presented here were designed to investigate whether naturally arising (spontaneous) rat mammary carcinomas can be controlled by immunotherapy. Several approaches were evaluated for this purpose including active specific immunotherapy involving treatment with vaccines containing tumour cells together with an immunological adjuvant, since this approach is effective with carcinogen-induced tumours (Pimm and Baldwin, 1978; Baldwin and Byers, 1979). Regional immunotherapy, in which immunostimulating agents are administered so as to localize in tumour deposits, was also evaluated since there is a growing evidence to indicate that non-specific immunity mediated by macrophages and/or natural killer cells can be effective against animal and human tumours (Baldwin and Byers, 1979; Herberman and Holden, 1979).


Mammary Carcinoma Active Specific Immunotherapy Bacterial Vaccine Cancer Research Campaign Corynebacterium Parvum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baldwin, R.W., and Byers, V.S., 1979, Immunoregulation by bacterial organisms and their role in the immuno-therapy of cancer, Springer Semin. Immunopathol., 2, 79–100.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin, R.W., and Embleton, M.J., 1969, Immunology of spontaneously arising rat mammary adenocarcinomas. Int. J. Cancer, 4, 430–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin, R.W., and Pimm, M.V., 1978, BCG in tumor immunotherapy. Adv. Cancer Res., 28, 91–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin, R.W., Embleton, M.J., and Pimm, M.V., 1979a, Host responses to spontaneous rat tumors, in: “Anti-viral mechanisms in the control of neoplasia”, Chandra, P., ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 333–353.Google Scholar
  5. Baldwin, R.W., Hopper, D.G., and Pimm, M.V., 1976, Bacillus Calmette Guérin contact immunotherapy of local and metastatic deposits of rat tumors. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 277, 124–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, R.W., Pimm, M.V., and Robins, R.A., 1979b, Active specific immunotherapy: experimental studies, in: Advances in Medical Oncology, Research and Education. 6, 67–75.Google Scholar
  7. Castro, J.E., 1978, Immunological Aspects of Cancer, J.E. Castro ed., p. 1–14, MTP Press Lancaster, U.K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goodnight, J.E., and Morton, D.L., 1978, Immunotherapy of malignant disease. Ann. Rev. Med., 29, 231–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Greager, J.A., and Baldwin, R.W., 1978, Influence of immunotherapeutic agents on the progression of spontaneously arising, metastasizing rat mammary adenocarcinomas of varying immunogenicities. Cancer Res., 38, 69–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Herberman, R.B., and Holden, H.T., 1979, Natural killer cells as antitumor effector cells. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 62, 441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Milas, L., and Scott, M.T., 1977, Antitumor activity of corynebacterium parvum. Adv. Cancer Res., 26, 257–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pimm, M.V., and Baldwin, R.W., 1975, BCG immunotherapy of rat tumour in athymic nude mice. Nature (Lond.) 254, 77–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pimm, M.V., Cook, A.J., Hopper, D.G., Dickinson, A.M., and Baldwin, R.W., 1978, BCG treatment of transplanted rat tumours of spontaneous origin. Int. J. Cancer, 22, 426–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Willmott, N., Austin, E.B., and Baldwin, R.W., 1979a, Comparative studies of the metastatic potential of three transplantable rat mammary carcinomas of spontaneous origin. Br. J. Exp. Path., 60, 499–506.Google Scholar
  15. Willmott, N., Pimm, M.V., and Baldwin, R.W., 1979b, C. parvum treatment of transplanted rat tumours of spontaneous origin. Int. J. Cancer, 24, 323–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Willmott, N., Austin, E.B., Pimm, M.V., and Baldwin, R.W., 1980, Evaluation of intratumoral Corynebacterium parvum and BCG in the treatmentof a transplanted rat mammary carcinoma of spontaneous origin. Submitted.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Baldwin
    • 1
  • M. V. Pimm
    • 1
  • N. Willmott
    • 1
  1. 1.Cancer Research Campaign LaboratoriesUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamEngland

Personalised recommendations