Morphological Study of the Ovary of Artemia

  • G. R. J. Criel
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 174)


Clegg and Conte reviewed the present knowledge of the ovaries in Artemia, rightly stating that some problems such as the differentiation between oocytes and nurse cells, the fate of the nurse cells, the origin of the yolk and the presence of cell types other than the germinal cell line are but partly solved[1]. An account of some morphological aspects of the development of the eggs was given by Criel[2] however, ultrastructural studies on ovogenesis are still separate[2–13] and therefore fail to give a clear insight into the entire course of events. Hoping to solve some of these problems, we undertook a systematic study of the ovaries throughout the vitellogenic cycle with the light and electron microscope, applying cytochemical and other techniques as required.


Synaptonemal Complex Nurse Cell Germinal Vesicle Tubular System Artemia Salina 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. S. Clegg and F. P. Conte, A review of the cellular and developmental biology of Artemia, in: “The Brine Shrimp Artemia,” Vol. 2, G. Persoone, P. Sorgeloos, O. Roels and E. Jaspers, eds., Universa Press, Wetteren (1980).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Criel, Morphology of the female genital apparatus of Artemia: a review, in: “The Brine Shrimp Artemia,” Vol. 1, G. Persoone, P. Sorgeloos, O. Roels and E. Jaspers, eds., Universa Press, Wetteren (1980).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Anteunis, Les membránes annelées dans l’oeuf d’Artemia salina. Etude de microscopie électronique, Bull. Assoc. Anat. 49:168 (1964).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Anteunis, N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, Ultrastructure du cortex et du plasme sous-cortical de l’oeuf d’Artemia salina, C. R. Soc. Biol. 155:1393 (1961).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Anteunis, N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, L’ultrastructure du noyau vitellin de l’oeuf d’Artemia salina, Exp. Cell Res. 35:239 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Anteunis, N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, A Propos d’un complexe tubulo-mitochondrial ordonné dans le jeune oocyte d’Artemia salina, J. Ultrastr. Res. 15:122 (1966a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Anteunis, N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, La structure des ponts intercellulaires “obturés” et “ouverts” entre les oogonies et les oocytes dans l’ovaire d’Artemia salina, Arch. Biol. 77:645 (1966b).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Anteunis, N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, L’incorporation de cellules nourricières par l’oocyte d’Artemia salina. Etude au microscope électronique, Arch. Biol. 77:665 (1966c).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Anteunis, N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, Ultrastructure du nucléole expulsé dans le cytoplasme de l’oocyte d’Artemia salina. C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris 266:1862 (1968).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. D. Cassidy, Aspects of ultrastructure and cytochemistry during oogenesis in Artemia salina, Biol. Bull. 129:402 (1965).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Cassidy, Ultrastructural relationship between the developing oocyte and auxiliary cells in adult Artemia, Biol. Bull. 131:385 (1966).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. D. Cassidy, C. F. Starmer and L. J. Beauregard, Quantitative radioautography of vitellogenesis in Artemia salina, Biol. Bull. 135:412 (1968).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Criel, Electron microscopie study of autosynthetic and heterosynthetic yolk protein synthesis in Artemia, Third International Symposium of Invertebrate Reproduction, Tubingen (1983).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. J. Karnovsky, A formaldehyde glutaraldehyde fixature of high molarity for use in electron microscopy, J. Cell Biol. 27:137A (1965).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Gomori, “Microscopic Histochemistry. Principles and Practice,” University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1952).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Sheldon, H. Zetterqvist and B. Randes, Histochemical reactions for electron microscopy: acid Phosphatase, Exp. Cell Res. 9:592 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Graham and M. S. Karnovsky, The early stages of absorption of injected horseradish peroxidase in the proximal tubules of the mouse kidney: ultrastructural cyochemistry by a new techique, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 14:291 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Overton, Localized lanthanum staining of the intestinal brush border, J. Cell Biol. 38:258 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. H. Lochhead and M. S. Lochhead, The development of oocytes in the brine shrimp, Artemia, Biol. Bull. 133:453 (1967).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Metalli and E. Ballardin, Radiobiology of Artemia: radiation effects and ploidy, Curr. Top. Rad. Res. Quart. 7:181 (1970).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Brauer, Uber das Ei von Branchipus grubii v.Dyb. von der Bildung bis zur Ablage. Abhandlungen der königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Phys.Abh. nicht zur Akad.gehör. Gelehrter II:1 (1892).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Claus, Untersuchungen über die Entwickelung van Branchippus und Artemia nebst vergleichenden Bemerkungen über andere Phyllopoden, Arbeiten aus dem Zoologischen Institute Wien 6:267 (1886).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Nitsche, Ueber die Geschlechtsorgane von Branchipus grubei (von Dybowsky), Z. Wiss. Zool. Suppl. 25:281 (1875).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Spangenberg, Zur Kenntnis von Branchipus stagnalis, Z. Wiss. Zool. (Suppl.) 25:1 (1875).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Barigozzi, I fenomeni cromosomici nelle cellule somatiche di Artemia salina Leach, Chromosoma 2:251 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Iwasaki, Incorporation of 3H-thymidine during oogenesis in Artemia salina, Annotationes Zoologicae Japoneneses 43:132 (1970).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. D. Squire, The effects of acute gamma irradiation on the brine shrimp Artemia. II. Female Performance, Biol. Bull. 139:375 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Fautrez-Firlefyn, Etude cytochimique des acides nucléiques au cours de l’ovogénèse chez Artemia salina, Communications 3ièmes journées Cyto-Embryologyques Belgo-Néerlandaises Gand (1949).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    N. Fautrez-Firlefyn, Etude cytochimique des acides nucléiques au cours de la gamétogénèse et des premiers stades du développement embryonnaire chez Artemia salina L, Arch. Biol. 62:391 (1951).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Fautrez-Firlefyn, Proteines, lipides et glucides dans l’oeuf d’ Artemia salina, Arch. Biol. 68:249 (1957).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, Répulsion d’acides thymonucléiques hors du noyau de certaines cellules de l’ovaire d’Artemia salina L, C. R. Soc. Biol. 144:1127 (1950).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, Intranuclear proteins of the oocytes in Artemia salina L, Nature 172:169 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Fautrez and N. Fautrez-Firlefyn, La teneur en acide désoxyribonucléique des cellules de l’ovaire d’Artemia salina L, Biol. Jaarb. 20:127 (1953).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Fautrez and N. Fautrez-Firlefyn, Sur la présence de phospholipines dans les nucléoles de l’oocyte d’Artemia salina, R. Ass. Anat. 42:506 (1955).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. Fautrez and N. Fautrez-Firlefyn, Sur la présence et la persistance d’un noyau vitellin atypique dans l’oeuf d’Artemia salina, Develop. Biol. 9:81 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    L. Lison and N. Fautrez-Firlefyn, Deoxyribonucleic acid content in ovary cells in Artemia salina, Nature 166:610 (1950).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. J. Linder, Studies on the fresh water fairy shrimp Chirocephalus bundyi (Forbes) I. Structure and histochemistry of the ovary and accessory reproduetive tissues, J. Morphol. 104:1 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    N. Munuswamy and T. Subramoniam, Oogenesis and shell gland activity in a fresh water fairy shrimp Streptocephalus dichotomus Baird (Crustacea: Anostraca), Cytobios 44:137 (1985).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    N. Munuswamy and T. Subramoniam, Histochemical studies on the vitellogenesis in a fairy shrimp Streptocephalus dochotomus Baird (Crustacea: Anostraca), Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 95:171 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    N. Zograf, Phyllopodenstudien, Z. Wiss. Zool. 86:446 (1907).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    P. Andreucetti, C. Taddei and S. Filosa, Intercellular bridges between follicle cells and oocytes during the differentiation of follicular epithelium in Lacerta sicula Raf, Cell Science 33:341 (1978).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. W. Fawcett, “A textbook of Hisology,” 11th ed., Saunders, Philadelphia (1986).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. R. Kalt, Ultrastructural observations on the germ line of Xenopus laevis, Z. Zellforsch. 138:41 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    L. J. Laughran, J. H. Larsen and P. C. Schroeder, Ultrastructure of developing ovarian follicles and Ovulation in the lizard Anolis carolensos (Reptilia), Zoomorphology (Berl.) 98:191 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. B. Moens and V. L. W. Go, Intercellular bridges and division patterns of rat spermatogonia, Z. Zellforsch. 127:201 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. L. Odor and R. J. Blandau, Ultrastructural studies on fetal and early postnatal mouse ovaries. II. Cytodifferentiation, Am. J. Anat. 125:177 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. R. Ruby, R. F. Dyer and R. G. Skalko, The occurence of intercellular bridges during oogenesis in the mouse, J. Morphol. 127:307 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. A. H. V. Van Vorstenbosch, E. Spek, B. Colenbrander and C. J. G. Wensing, The ultrastructure of normal fetal and neonatal pig testis germ cells and the influence of fetal decapitation on the germ cell development, Development 99:553 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. E. Weber and L. D. Russel, A study of intercellular bridges during spermatogenesis in the rat, Am. J. Anat. 180:1 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    W. E. Foor, Cytoplasmic bridges in the ovary of Ascaris lumbrieoides, Bulletin of the Tulane University Medical Faculty 27:23 (1968).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    W. H. Telfer, Development and physiology of the oocyte-nurse cell syncytium. Adv. Insect Physiol. 11:223 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    A. Fiil, Follicle cell bridges in the mosquito ovary: syncytia formation and bridge morphology, J. Cell Sci. 31:137 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Billen, Ultrastructure of the worker ovarioles in Formica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Int. J. Insect Morphol. & Embryol. 14: 21 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    I. Mandelbaum, Intercellular bridges and the fusome in the germ cells of the Cecropia moth, J. Morphol. 166:37 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    S. M. Meola, H. H. Mollenhauer and J. M. Thompson, Cytoplasmic bridges within the follicular epithelium of the ovarioles of two Diptera, Aedes aegypti and Stomoxys calcitrans, J. Morphol. 153:81 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    N. Richard-Mercier, Evolution des cellules germinales et mesodermiques des testicules larvaires du Doryphore, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Int. J. Insect Morphol. Embryol. 8:335 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    F. Sabelli Scanabissi and M. Trentini, Ultrastructural observations on oogenesis in Triops cancriformis (Crustacea, Notostraca), Cell Tiss. Res. 201:361 (1979).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    H.-D. Pfannestiel and C. H. Grünig, Yolk formation in an annelid (Ophryotrocha puerilis, Polychaeta), Tiss. & Cell 14:669 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    R. G. Kessel, The structure and function of annulate lamellae: porous cytoplasmic and intranuclear membranes, Int. Rev. Cytol. 82:181 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    C. Campanella, P. Andreucetti and L. Bellini, Annulate lamellae in oogenesis of Discoglossus pictus (Anura), Bull. Zool. 50:79 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    M. R. Dohmen, Nuage material the origin of dense-core vesicles in oocytes of Nassarius reticulatus (Mollusca Gastropoda), Int. J. Invert. Reprod. 8:117 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    H. Imoh, Behavior of annulate lamellae during the maturation of oocytes in the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 70:153 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    R. G. Kessel, Fibrogranular bodies, annulate lamellae, and polyribosomes in the dragonfly oocyte, J. Morphol. 176:171 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    J. P. Stafstrom and L. A. Staehelin, Are annulate lamellae in the Drosophila embryo the result of overproduction of nuclear pore components?, J. Cell Biol. 98:699 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. Arnaud, M. Brunet and J. Mazza, Etude de l’ovogénèse chez Centropagus typicus, Reprod. Nutrition Développement 22:537 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    H. W. Beams and R. G. Kessel, Ultrastructure and vitellogenesis in the oocyte of the crustacean, Oniscus asellus, J. Submicrosc. Cytol. 12:17 (1980).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. Bilinski, Oogenesis in Campodea sp. (Diplura). The ultrastructure of the egg Chamber during vitellogenesis, Cell Tissue Res. 202:133 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    S. Bilinski, Ultrastructural study of yolk formation in Porcellio scaber Latr. (Isopoda), Cytobios 26:123 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    P. I. Blades-Eckelbarger and M. J. Youngbluth, The ultrastructure of oogenesis and yolk formation in Labidocera aestiva (Copepoda: Calanoida), J. Morphol. 179:33 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    H. Charniaux-Cotton, Vitellogenesis and its control in Malacostracan Crustacea, Amer. Zool. 25:197 (1985).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. N. Dumont and E. Anderson, Vitellogenesis in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, J. Microscopie 6:791 (1967).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    L. Eurenius, An electron microscope study on the developing oocytes of the crab Cancer pagurus L. with special reference to yolk formation, Z. Morph. Tiere 75:243 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    G. W. Hinsch and M. V. Cone, Ultrastructural observations of vitellogenesis in the spider crab, Libinia emarginata L, J. Cell Biol. 40:336 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    R. G. Kessel, Mechanisms of yolk protein synthesis and deposition in crustacean oocytes, Zeitschr. Zellforsch. 89:17 (1968a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    B. S. Komm and G. Hinsch, Oogenesis in the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus (Decapoda, Anomura): II. Vitellogenesis, J. Morphol. 192:269 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    E. Papathanassiou and P. E. King, Ultrastructural studies on gametogenesis of the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant). I. Oogenesis, Acta Zoologica (Stockh.) 65:17 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. L. Schade and R. R. Shivers, Structural modulation of the surface and cytoplasm of oocytes during vitellogenesis in the lobster Homarus americanus. An electron microscope-protein tracer study, J. Morphol. 163:13 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    E. M. Wolin, H. Laufer and D. F. Albertini, Uptake of yolk protein, lipovitellin, by developing crustacean oocytes, Develop. Biol. 35: 160 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    C. Zerbib, Contribution a l’etude ultrastructurale de l’ovocyte chez le crustace amphipode Orchestia gammarella (Pallas), C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 277:1209 (1973).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    C. Zerbib, Etude ultrastructuale de l’ovocyte en vitellogénèse chez les Ecrevisses Astacus astacus et A. leptodaetylus, Int. J. Invert. Reprod. 1:289 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    C. Zerbib, Ultrastructural Observation of oogenesis in the crustacea amphipoda Orchestia gammarellus (Pallus), Tiss. & Cell 12:47 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    A. Dhainaut and M. De Leersnijder, Etude cytochimique et ultrastructurale de l’evolution ovocytaire du crabe Eriocheir sinensis. I. Ovogénèse naturelle, Arch. Biol. 87:261 (1976).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    C. Zerbib, Nature chimique des enclaves vitellines de l’ovocyte du crustace, 1’amphipode Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas), Ann. Histochim. 21:279 (1976).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    K. Bier, W. Kunz and D. Ribbert, Struktur und Funktion der Oocytenchromosomen und Nucleolen sowie der Extra DNS während der Oogenese panoistischer und meroistischer Insekten, Chromosoma (Berl) 23:214 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    A. Fiil, Oogenesis in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, Cell Tissue Res. 167:23 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    M. N. Gruzova, Z. P. Zaichikova and I. I. Sokolov, Functional Organization of the nucleus in the oogenesis of Chrysopa perla L. (Insecta, Neuroptera), Chromosoma (Berl.) 37:353 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    G. Rue and M. Gontcharoff, Etude des modifications ultrastructurales du nucléole au cours de l’ovogénèse de Lineus ruber (Hétéronémertes), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 273:752 (1971).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    U. Mothes-Wagner and K.-A. Scitz, Ultrahistology of oogenesis and vitellogenesis in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, Tiss. & Cell 16:179 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    P. Andreucetti and C. Campanella, Regional differences in the pattern of vitellogenesis in the painted frog Discoglossus pictus, Tissue & Cell 14:681 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    M. L. Bonnenfant-Jais and P. Mentre, Study of oogenesis in the newt Pleurodeles watlii M. Ultrastructural study of different stages of oocyte development, Submicrosc. Cytol. 15:453 (1983).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    H. Emanuelsson, Electronmicroscopical observations on yolk and yolk formation in Ophiotrocha labronica LaGreca and Bacci, Zellforsch. 95:19 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Medina, J. C. Garcia, F. J. Moreno and J. L. Lopez-Campos, Comparative studies on the histology of the ovotestis in Hypselodoris tricolor and Godiva banyulensis (Gastropoda Opisthobranchia) with special reference to yolk formation, J. Morphol. 188:105 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    R. Riehl, Licht-und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an den Oocyten der Suswasser-Teleosteer Noemacheilus barbatulus (L.) and Gobio gobio (L.) (Pisces, teleostei), Zool. Anz. 201:199 (1978).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    D. A. Wall and S. Platel, Multivesicular bodies play a key role in vitellogenin endocytosis by Xenopus oocytes, Develop. Biol. 119: 275 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    R. T. Ward, The origin of protein and fatty yolk in Rana pipiens. III. Intramitochondrial and primary vesicular yolk formation in frog oocytes, Tiss. & Cell 10:515 (1978a).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. T. Ward, The origin of protein and fatty yolk in Rana pipiens. IV. Secondary vesicular yolk formation in frog oocytes. Tiss. & Cell 10:525 (1978b).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    N. Garreau de Loubresse, Etude chronologique de la mise en place des enveloppes de l’oeuf d’un crustacé phyllopode: Tanymastyx lacunae, J. Micrscopie 20:21 (1974).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    G. De Maeyer-Criel, N. Fautrez-Firlefyn and J. Fautrez, Formation de la mebrane de fecondation dans l’oeuf d’Artemia salina, W. Roux’ Archiv. 183:223 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    E. Van Beek, M. Van Brussel, G. Criel and A. De Loof, A possible extra-ovarian site for synthesis of lipovitellin during vitellogenesis in Artemia sp. (Crustacea; Anostraca). Int. J. Invert. Reprod. Develop. 12:227 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    R. G. Kessel, The permeability of the crayfish oocyte-follicle complex as studied with peroxidase as a tracer, J. Cell Biol. 39:169A (1968b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    A. S. Raikhel and A. O. Lea, Internationalized proteins directed into accumulative compartments of mosquito oocytes by the specific ligand vitellogenin, Tiss. & Cell 18:559 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    F. Roels, Localisation d’aetivités peroxidasiques dans l’oeuf d’Artemia salina à l’aide de 3,3’-diaminobenzidine et de pyrogallol, Arch. Biol. 81:229 (1970).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    F. Roels and E. Wisse, Distinction cytochimique entre catalases et peroxidases, C. R. Acad. Sci. 276:391 (1973).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    C. R. Hopkins, The histochemistry and fine structure of the accessory nuclei in the oocyte of Bombyx mori, Quart. J. Microscop. Sci. 105:475 (1964).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    P. E. King and M. R. Fordy, The formation of “accessory nuclei” in the developing oocytes of the parasitoid hymenopterans Ophion luteus (L.) and Apanteles glomeratus (L.), Z. Zellforsch. 190:158 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    J. D. Cassidy and R. C. King, Ovarian development in Habrobracon juglandis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) I. The origin and differentiation of the oocyte-nurse cell complex, Biol. Bull. 143: 483 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    G. F. Meyer, S. Sokoloff, B. E. Wolf and D. Brand, Accessory nuclei (nuclear membrane balloons) in the oocyte of the dipteran Phryne, Chromosoma (Berl.) 75 (1979).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    F. Blochmann, Über die Metamorphose der Kerne in den Ovarialeier und über den Beginn der Blastodermbildung bei den Ameisen, Verh. Naturh. Med. Verein Heidelberg 3:243 (1884).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    K. Bier, Endomitose und Polytanie in der Nährzellkernen von Calliphora erythrocephala Meigen, Chromosoma (Berl.) 8:493 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    J. Cardoen, L. Schoofs, D. Broekaert, H. Van Mellaert, B. Vanachtert and A. DeLoof, Polyploidization and localization of poly(a)+ RNA in the different cell types of the vitellogenic meroistic ovary of the fleshfly, Sarcophaga bullata, Histochemistry 85:305 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    W. C. Choi and W. Nagl, Patterns of DNA and RNA synthesis during the development of ovarian nurse cells in Gerris najas (Heteroptera), Develop. Biol. 61:262 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    M. Guelin and M. Durand, Evolution des cellules nourricieres au cours de l’ovogenese chez Ephestia kuhniella Z. (Insecte, Lepidoprere), Annales des Sciences naturelles, Zoologie, 13ieme serie 2:167 (1980).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    R. C. King, E. M. Rasch, S. F. Riley, P. M. O’Grady and P. D. Storto, Cytophotometric evidence for the transformation of oocytes into nurse cells in Drosophila melanogaster, Histochemistry 82:131 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    M. Ksiazkiewics, Ultrastructure of the trophic Chamber and nutritive cord of Aspidiotus hederae (Homoptera, coccoidea), Cell Tissue Res. 213:149 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    D. A. Lutz and E. Huebner, Development of nurse cell-oocyte interactions in the insect telotrophic ovary (Rhodnius prolixus), Tissue & Cell 13:321 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    E. Nour-Eddine and A. M. Laverdure, Etude du méchanisme de 1’endomitose dans les noyaux trophocytes ovariens de Tenebrio molitor, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser III 294:267 (1982).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    B. Griffond and L. Gomot, Ultrastructural study of the follicle cells in the fresh water gastropod Viviparus viviparus L, Cell Tissue Res. 202:25 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    J.-M. Arcier and M. Brehelin, Etude histologique et ultrastructurale du tissue folliculaire au cours des cycles de développement Ovarien chez Palaemon adspersus (Rathke, 1837), Arch. Biol. 93:9 (1982).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    P. Jugan and C. Zerbib, Follicle cell tubular system in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a route for exchanges between haemolymph and vitellogenic oocytes?, Biol. Cell 51:395 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    C. Zerbib and P. Jugan, Mise en évidence d’un mode nouveau de franchissement de 1’vpithelium folliculaire secondaire chez le crustaceé décapode Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Int. J. Invert. Reprod. Develop. 7:227 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    A. H. Warner and J. C. Bagshaw, Absence of detectable 5-methylcytosine in DNA of embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia. Develop. Biol. 102:264 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. J. Criel
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorium voor AnatomieRijksuniversiteit GentGentBelgium

Personalised recommendations