Instrumental Considerations for Thermal Methods

  • Arthur F. Findeis
Conference paper


The techniques of thermal measurements in chemistry have received a spectacular revival due to relatively recent developments in instrumentation for the reliable measurement of heats or rates of heat transfer associated with various types of physical and chemical changes. The commercial availability of instrumentation has in turn stimulated experimentation in other areas which provide auxilliary information to thoroughly define the chemical or physical processes taking place. The measurement of temperature or differential temperature is a direct or related important part of the process.


Differential Thermal Analysis Thermal Method Calcium Carbide Phosphorous Pentoxide Differential Thermocouple 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. F. Stimson, “International Practical Temperature Scale of 1948, Text Revision of 1960”, National Bureau of Standards Monograph 37, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 10 centsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. F. Roeser and S. T. Lonberger, “Methods of Testing Thermocouples and Thermocouple Materials, National Bureau of Standards. Circular 590, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20 centsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Halpern and Robert J. Moffat, “Bibliography of Temperature Measurement”, January 1953 to June 1960, National Bureau of Standards Monograph 27, Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 15 centsGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. L. Powell, M. D. Bunch and R. J. Corrucini, Cryogenics 1, 139 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. L. Powell, L. P. Caywood, M. D. Bunch “Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry”, Vol 3, Part 2 Reinhold, New York 1963Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. F. Walker, Rev. Hautes Temper. et Refract., 3, 301 (1966)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. W. Burns and J. S. Gallagher, J. Res. Nat. Bureau of Standards, 70c, 89 (1966)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. B. Thomas, J. Res. Nat. Bureau of Standards, 67c, 337 (1963)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Brewer and P. Zavitsanos, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 2, 284 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. J. Accinno and J. F. Schneider, Engelhard Industries, Inc. Tech. Bull 1, 1202, 53 (1960)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. O. Olsen and P. D. Freeze J. Res. Nat. Bur. Standards, 68c, 263, (1964)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. W. Smith and D. R. Johnson in “Proceeding of the Second Thermal Toronto Symposium on Thermal Analysis” H. G. McAdie, Editor Toronto Section, Chemical Institute of Canada 1967Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. J. Thoburn and L. M. Pidgeon, Can. Met. Quart. 4, 205 (1965)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    “Recommended Practice for Thermal Analysis of Metals and Alloys”, ASTM Designation E 14-63Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. K. Burgess, Scientific Paper No 99, Nat. Bureau of Standards (1908)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Standard Method of Test for Freezing Points of High Purity Hydrocarbons ASTM Designation D 1015-55.Google Scholar
  17. A. L. Day and E. T. Allen, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. No 31 (1905)Google Scholar
  18. 18.(2)
    C. Doelter, Z. Elektrochem. 12, 413 (1906)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.(3)
    J. W. Greig and T. F. W. Barth, Am. J. Science, 35A, 93 (1938)Google Scholar
  20. 20.(4)
    M. Volmer and O. Schmidt, Z. Phsik, Chem. 35B, 467 (1937)Google Scholar
  21. 21.(5)
    S. E. Khaikin and N. P. Bene, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. USSR 23, 31 (1939)Google Scholar
  22. 22.(6)
    G. W. Sears, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 2, 37 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.(7)
    N. W. Aimslie, J. D. Mackenzie, and D. Turnbull, J. Phys. Chem., 65 65, 1718 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.(8)
    R. L. Cormia, J. D. Mackenzie, and D. Turnbull, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2239 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.(9)
    G. Tammann, Z. Physik. Chem. 68, 257 (1910)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. Helmuth and B. Wunderlich, J. App. Phys. 36, 3039 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. M. Pakulak and G. W. Leonard, Anal. Chem. 31, 1037 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. A. Nedumov, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (English Translation) 34, 84, (1960)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. R. Lovejoy, Can. J. Phys. 36, 1397 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. D. Lee, “Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol 3, Part I Reinhold, New York p 587Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    I. I. Kirenkov. All Union Sci. Res. Inst. for Metrology, Leningrad, Transactions, No. 71 131 (1963)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. L. Wittenberg and G. R. Grove. Reactor Fuels and Materials Development Plutonium Research: 1965 Annual Report MIM-1328 Jan 20, 1967Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Speil, L. H. Berkelhamer, J. A, Pask and B. Davies, U. S, Bur of Mines Tech. Paper, No. 664 81 pp (1945)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. L. Boersma, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 38, 281 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. de Josselim de Jong, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 40, 42 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. N. Reilly, J. Chem. Educ. 39, A853 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    E. Sturm, J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1935 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. G. Herold and T. J. Planje, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 31, 20 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    C. Mazieres, Comp. Rend. 248, 2990 (1959)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Mazieres, Anal. Chem. 36, 602 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. M. Barrall, R. S. Porter and J. F. Johnson Anal. Chem. 36, 2172 (1964)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    E. M. Barrall, R. S. Porter and J. F. Johnson J. Phys. Chem. 70, 385 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    R. L. Stone and G. T. Burress, U.S. Patent 3, 298, 220 Jan 17, 1967Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. D. Garn “Thermal Analysis of Small Samples, Proc. Intern Microchem. Techniques State College, Pennsylvania 1961 (N. D. Cheronis, ed.) pp 1105–1109 Wiley (Interscience) New York, 1962Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. Paulik, F. Paulik and L. Erdey, Anal. Chim. Acta. 34, 419 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    H. G. McAdie, Anal. Chem. 35, 1840 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    W. H. King, A. F. Findeis, C. T. Camilli, Paper presented this A.C.S. MeetingGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. Coops, R. S. Jessup and K. Van Nes in “Experimental Thermochemistry” F. D. Rossin, Editor, Interscience, New York 1956Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. M. Sturtevant in “Physical Methods in Organic Chemistry, Part I, Third Ed., A. Weissberger, Editor, Interscience, New York 1959Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. Wadso, Science Tools, LKB Inst. J. 13, 22 (1966)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    D. M. Speros and R. L. Woodhouse, Nature, 197, 1261 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    D. M. Speros and R. L. Woodhouse, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 2164 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    D. M. Speros, Personal CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. D. Freeman, Personal CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    E. S. Watson, M. J. O’Neil, J. Stein and N. Brenner Anal. Chem. 36, 1233 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    M. J. O’Neil, Anal. Chem. 36 1238 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    S. L. Cooke, Personal CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    B. B. Graves, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (1966)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    H. G. McAdie, Anal. Chem. 39, 543, (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    R. E. Kagarise, J. Chem. Phys., 24, 300 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    W. J. Davis, S. E. Rogers, A. R. Ubbelohde, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 235 A, 469 (1956)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    J. H. Flynn and L. A. Wall, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Standards, 70A 487 (1966)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    S. M. Ellerstein, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 2471 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    H. E. Kissinger, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Standards 57, 217 (1956)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    R. M. Fuoss, I. O. Salyer and H. S. Wilson, J. Polymer Sci. 2, 3147 (1964)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    P. D. Garn, “Thermoanalytical Methods of Investigation, Academic Press, New York 1964Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fishbeck and Snaidt, Z. Electrochem. 38, 199 (1932)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    T. R. Ingrahm and P. Marier, Can. J. Chem. Engr. Aug 1, 1961 (1964)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    I. C. Hisatsune, Science, 145, 1455 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    K. O. Hartman and I. C. Hisatsune, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 1281 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    K. O. Hartman and I. C. Hisatsune, J. Phys. Chem. 71, 392 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    R. M. Wing and G. M. Harris, J. Phys. Chem. 69, 4328 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    W. F. Fisher and W. H. King Anal. Chem. 39, 1265 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    S. Bruckenstein and N. E. Vanderborgh, Anal. Chem. 38, 687 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    S. Bruckenstein and M. Kopanica. Abstracts of Papers, Automation in Analytical Chemistry XXI International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Prague Sept 4-10, 1967Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    J. J. Christenson, R. M. Izatt and L. P. Hansen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 36, 779 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. J. Cantow, R. S. Porter and J. F. Johnson, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 2547 (1964)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    C. Tomlinson, C. Chylevski and W. Simon, Tetrahedron, 19, 99 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    A. Adicoff and W. J. Murbach NOTS TP 4247 U.S. Naval Ordinance Test Station, China Lake, California 1967Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    P. J. Kramer, Botany Department, Duke University, Personal CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    H. G. McAdie, Editor, “Proceedings of the Second Toronto Sympsoium on Thermal Analysis”Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur F. Findeis
    • 1
  1. 1.National Science FoundationUSA

Personalised recommendations