New Perspectives on the Endocrine Regulation of the Rabbit Corpus Luteum
In many species a luteotrophic hormone has been identified which maintains the morphological and functional integrity of the corpus luteum. For example, in large domestic animals and in primates LH is thought to have the preeminent role as the luteotrophic hormone (Hansel et al., 1973; Niswender et al., 1980; Knobil, 1973), and prolactin is recognized as the major luteotrophic hormone in the rat (Rothchild, 1981). However, it has become evident that other hormones can act upon the corpus luteum, and thus potentially have a significant influence upon steroidogenic activity as well as lifespan of the gland. To illustrate this feature, progesterone synthesis can be stimulated in cow and sheep corpora lutea by catecholamines in vitro, and this action, at least in sheep, is directly upon steroidogenic luteal cells (Jordan et al., 1978; Condon and Black, 1976). The ultimate control of steroidogenesis in sheep luteal cells is unclear in view of the recent observation that the large luteal cells, which comprise the major progesterone secretory component of the ovine corpus luteum in vivo, exhibit no steroidogenic response either to LH or to elevated cyclic AMP (Fitz et al., 1982; Hoyer et al., 1983). The rat corpus luteum passes through an LH-sensitive period which is thought to be mediated by estrogen produced within the corpus luteum (Gibori et al., 1977; 1978). In the rabbit, 17β-estradiol of follicular origin is considered the essential luteotrophic hormone (Keyes et al., 1983), although the luteal tissue is clearly responsive to LH (Dorrington and Kilpatrick, 1969; Hunzicker-Dunn and Birnbaumer, 1976) and also possesses a catecholamine sensitive adenylyl cyclase (Hunzicker-Dunn, 1982).
KeywordsCorpus Luteum Luteal Cell Serum Progesterone Luteal Tissue Progesterone Synthesis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Deanesly, R., Fee, A. R., and Parkes, A. S., 1930, Studies on ovulation. II. The effect of hypophysectomy on the formation of the corpus luteum, J. Physiol (Lond.), 70: 38.Google Scholar
- Dorrington, J. H. and Kilpatrick, R., 1969, The synthesis of progestational steroids by the rabbit ovary, in: “The Gonads”, K. W. McKerns, ed., Appleton-Century-Crofts, N.Y.Google Scholar
- Fitz, T. A., Mayan, M. H., Sawyer, H. R., and Niswender, G. D., 1982, Characterization of two steroidogenic cell types in the ovine corpus luteum, Biol. Reprod., 27: 703.Google Scholar
- Gadsby, J. E., Keyes, P. L., and Bill, C. H., II, Control of corpus luteum function in the pregnant rabbit: role of estrogen and lack of a direct luteotrophic role of the placenta, Endocrinology (in press).Google Scholar
- Hansel, W., Concannon, P. W., and Lukaszewska, J. H., 1973, Corpora lutea of the large domestic animals, Biol. Reprod., 8: 222.Google Scholar
- Holt, J. A., Dinerstein, R. J. and Lorincz, M. A., 1982, Site of estrogen action in rabbit ovarian tissue, Am. J. Physiol., 243: E188.Google Scholar
- Hoyer, P. B., Fitz, T. A., and Niswender, G. D., 1983, Pro-gesterone secretion by large ovine luteal cells is not regulated by 3’5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), Biol. Reprod., 28: 34 (Abstract).Google Scholar
- Keyes, P. L., Gadsby, J. E., Yuh, K-C. M., and Bill, C. H., 1983, The corpus luteum, in: “Reproductive Physiology, IV, International Review of Physiology”, Vol. 27, R. O. Greep, ed., University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
- Knobil, E., 1973, On the regulation of the primate corpus luteum, Biol. Reprod., 8: 246.Google Scholar
- Niswender, G. D., Sawyer, H. R., Chen, T. T., and Endres, D. B., 1980, Action of luteinizing hormone at the luteal cell level, Adv. Sex Horm. Res., 4: 153.Google Scholar
- Robson, J. M., 1937, Maintenance by oestrin of the luteal function in hypophysectomized rabbits, J. Physiol. ( Lond. ), 90: 435.Google Scholar
- Vande Wiele, R. L., Boqumil, J., Dyrenfurth, I., Ferin, M., Jewelewicz, R., Warren, M., Rizkallah, T., and Mikhail, G., 1970, Mechanisms regulating the menstrual cycle in women, Rec. Prog. Horm. Res., 26: 63.Google Scholar