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Immune Response Genes in the Regulation of Mammalian Immunity

  • Jay A. Berzofsky
Part of the Biological Regulation and Development book series (BRD, volume 2)

Abstract

The continuous and growing excitement elicited by the concept of immune response (Ir)* genes since their discovery in the mid-1960s (McDevitt and Benacerraf, 1969; Benacerraf and McDevitt, 1972; Benacerraf and Katz, 1975; Benacerraf and Germain, 1978) can be understood as soon as that concept is fully defined. Immune response genes are operationally defined as antigen-specific genes that control the ability of an animal to raise an i immune response, humoral or cellular, to a particular antigen. The antigen specificity is a crucial aspect of the definition. Thus genes that lead to broad immune deficiency diseases, such as Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome or ataxia telangiectasia in man (Waldmann et al., 1980) and the CBA/N defect in the mouse (Mosier et al., 1977), are excluded from the concept. However, the antigen specificity is also what leads to all the excitement. The hallmark of immunology has always been the exquisite, fine specificity of antigen recognition combined with the seemingly endless diversity of specificities that could be elicited. Despite many investigator years of research invested in trying to explain this diversity, primarily with regard to immunoglobulins, providing us with some understanding of the molecular bases of specificity (Kabat, 1978; Berzofsky and Schechter, 1980, and reviews cited therein), the mechanisms of generation of antibody diversity are still the subject of continuing controversy (Cunningham, 1976; Kabat et al., 1979; Seidman et al., 1979, and references cited therein). The discovery of Ir genes introduced an apparently new level of antigen recognition whose diversity and specificity had to be explained in addition to those of familiar immunoglobulins.

Keywords

High Responder Immune Response Genes Bone Marrow Chimera Staphylococcal Nuclease Antiidiotypic Antibody 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations used in this chapter

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

BUdR

bromodeoxyuridine

CFA

complete Freund’s adjuvant

CH

constant portion of immunoglobulin heavy chain

CI

cellular interaction

cM

centiMorgans or recombinational map units

DNP

dinitrophenyl

DTH

delayed-type hypersensitivity

GAT

random linear copolymer Glu60,Ala30,Tyr10

GLLeu

poly-(Glu,Lys,Leu)

GLPhe

random copolymer of Glu53, Lys36,Phe11

GLT5

poly-(Glu57,Lys38,Tyr5)

H-2

The major histocompatibility complex of the mouse

(H,G)-A-L

poly(His,Glu)-poly-D,L-Ala-poly-L-Lys

Ir

immune response

KLH

keyhole limpet hemocyanin

LPS

lipopolysaccharide from bacterial cell wall

Mb

myoglobin

MBSA

methylated bovine serum albumin

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MLR

allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction

NIP

(4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3nitrophenyl) acetyl

NP

(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl

(Phe,G)-A-L

poly(Phe,Glu)-poly-D,L-Alapoly-L-Lys

PLL

poly-L-lysine

(T,G)-A-L

poly(Tyr,Glu)-poly-D,L-Ala-poly-L-Lys

(T,G)-Pro-L

poly(Tyr,Glu)-poly-L-Pro-poly-L-Lys

TNP

trinitrophenyl

VH

variable portion of immunoglobulin heavy chain

VL

variable portion of immunoglobulin light chain

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay A. Berzofsky
    • 1
  1. 1.The Metabolism Branch, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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