Time Code and Synchronizing Techniques

  • John M. Eargle


The need for synchronizing (or “sync-ing”) audio tracks was first felt in the late 1920s as talking motion pictures were developed. Film itself has always been fitted with equally spaced sprocket holes, and as such exhibited linear velocity that could be locked into a fixed shaft rotational rate. Optical sound on film was recorded on the same medium, and the two could be locked into sync indefinitely, with single-frame accuracy.


Time Code Audio Track Editing System Musical Instrument Digital Interface Optical Sound 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 1.
    W. Hickman, Time Code Handbook, Cipher Digital, Boston (1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Huber, The MIDI Manual, Sams, Indianapolis (1991).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Moog, “MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface,” J. Audio Engineering Society, vol. 34, no. 5 (1986).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Rumsey, MIDI Systems & Control, Focal Press, Oxford (1994).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall, New York, NY 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Eargle

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