Advertisement

Animals and Their Environment

  • Gaylon S. Campbell
Part of the Heidelberg Science Library book series (HSL)

Abstract

The principles discussed thus far become more meaningful as they are applied to problems in nature. The first of these problems we will consider is that of describing the fitness of the physical environment for survival of some animal whose requirements we will specify. Survival of the animal can depend on many factors; we will consider only those related to maintaining body temperature within acceptable limits and those related to maintaining proper body water status. Even these aspects will only be discussed to a limited extent. For example, maintenance of body temperature in homeotherms involves production of metabolic heat. Stored chemical energy from the animal’s food is used to produce the heat, so availability of food in the environment could be construed to be part of the animal’s physical environment. Food availability will not enter into our discussions in this way, but we will ask how much food a homeotherm needs in order to maintain constant body temperature. Such questions are of interest to those modeling ecosystems as well as those managing range lands for wild or domestic animals, because in many cases it is the only way an estimate of the food requirements for certain animals can be made.

Keywords

Thermal Resistance Climate Space Desert Tortoise Solar Beam Latent Heat Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 7.1
    Bernstein, M. H. (1971) Cutaneous water loss in small birds. Condor 73: 468–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 7.2
    Cena, K. and J. L. Monteith (1975) Transfer processes in animal coats, II. Conduction and convection. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 188:395–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 7.3
    Kerslake, D. McK. (1972) The Stress of Hot Environments. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. 7.4
    Kreith, F. (1965) Principles of Heat Transfer. Scranton, Pa. International Textbook Co.Google Scholar
  5. 7.5
    Lasiewski, R. C. , M. H. Bernstein, and R. D. Ohmart (1971) Cutaneous water loss in the Roadrunner and Poor-will. Condor 73:470–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 7.6
    MacMillen, R. E. and E. A. Christopher (1975) The water relations of two populations of noncaptive desert rodents. Environmental Physiology of Desert Organisms. (N. F. Hadley, ed.) New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. 7.7
    Monteith, J. L. (1973) Principles of Environmental Physics. New York: American Elsevier.Google Scholar
  8. 7.8
    Morhardt, S. S. and D. M. Gates (1974) Energy-exchange analysis of the Belding ground squirrel and its habitat. Ecol. Monogr. 44: 17–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 7.9
    Porter, W. P. and D. M. Gates (1969) Thermodynamic equilibrium of animals with environment. Ecol. Monogr.39: 245–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 7.10
    Robinson, D. E., G. S. Campbell, and J. R. King (1976) An evaluation of heat exchange in small birds. J. Comp. Physiol. 105:153–166.Google Scholar
  11. 7.11
    Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1969) The neglected interface: the biology of water as a liquid-gas system. Quart. J. Biophys. 2 : 283–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 7.12
    Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1972) How Animals Work. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. 7.13
    Schmidt-Nielsen, K., J. Kanwisher, R. C. Lasiewski, J. E. Cohn, and W. L. Bretz (1969) Temperature regulation and respiration in the Ostrich. Condor 71:341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 7.14
    Scholander, P. F., V. Walters, R. Hock, and L. Irving (1950) Body insulation of some arctic and tropical mammals and birds. Biol. Bull. 99 :225–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaylon S. Campbell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and Soils Program in Biochemistry and BiophysicsWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations