When one speaks publicly today of a “pro, ” it is almost always in association with sports. The professional athlete is distinguished from the amateur, the most important difference between them lying in the payment of the professional for his performance. The prerequisite for this payment is of course the pro’s fairly high performance level, whose attainment and maintenance demands a training program that absorbs a large part of the time normally available for one’s occupation.


Educational System Mathematical Research Private Tutor High Performance Level French Mathematic 
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  1. 1.
    See Nathan Reingold, Definitions and Speculations: The Professionalization of Science in America in the Nineteenth Century, in: The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic (eds. A. Oleson and S. C. Brown), Baltimore — London 1976s, pp. 33–69.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Magali Sarfatti Larson, The Rise of Professionalism, Berkeley — Los Angeles — London 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Larson, op. cit., p. XVI.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larson, op. cit., p. XVII.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Larson, op. cit., p. 49 f.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Larson, op. cit., p. 51.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    See R. Stephen Turner, “The Growth of Professorial Research in Prussia, 1818 to 1848 — Causes and Context,” Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 3 (1971), pp. 137–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Compare Gert Schubring, “Bedingungen der Professionalisierung von Wissenschaft. Eine vergleichende Übersicht zu Frankreich und Preußen”, Lendemains, no. 19 (1980), pp. 125–135.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    See e.g. Ivor Grattan Guiness, “Mathematical Physics in France, 1800–1835”, in: Epistemological and Social Problems of the Sciences in the Early Nineteenth Century (eds. H. N. Jahnke and M. Otte), Dordrecht 1981, pp. 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    See Maurice Crosland, “The Development of a Professional Career in Science in France,” in: The Emergence of Science in Western Europe (ed. M. Crosland), London 1975, pp. 139–159;Google Scholar
  11. 10a.
    Robert Fox, “Scientific Enterprise and the Patronage of Research in France 1800–1870”, Minerva, 11 (1973), pp. 442–473;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10b.
    and Terry Shinn, “The French Science Faculty System, 1808–1914: Institutional Change and Research Potential in Mathematics and the Physical Sciences,” Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 10 (1979), pp. 271–332.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Victorian Science (eds. G. Basalla, W. Coleman, and R. H. Kargon), N.Y. 1970, Introduction p. 9.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

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  • Ivo Schneider

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