The Employment of Mathematicians in Insurance Companies in the 19th Century

  • Horst-Eckart Gross


One important social function of the universities, not only in the Federal Republic of Germany, is the training of highly qualified workers who are actively engaged in practically every part of society. This task has been accomplished to a certain degree by the universities of the 19th century: lawyers, doctors, theologians have already been prepared at the universities for their professional practice at that stage.


Federal Republic Life Insurance Industrial Enterprise Life Insurance Company Mortality Table 
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Notes and references

  1. 1.
    Paulsen, F. Die deutschen Universitäten Berlin 1902,p.165Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Teichler, U. Higher Education and Employment in the Federal Republic of Germany Kassel 1978,p.5 (Working paper of the scientific center of Profession- and University Research)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    This has also long-range consequences for the social situation of university-graduates. But it is not possible to deal with this aspect in this paper.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See e.g. the survey article of Mulkay, M.J. Sociology of the Scientific Research Community, in: Spiegel-Rösing/de Solla Price (eds) Science,Technology and Society London/ Beverly Hill 1977 p.93Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Specifications according the census and profession census of the Statistical Federal Bureau of the years 1961 and 1970.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Out of 32.358 mathematics students who immatriculated in the summer 1979, 42 % studied to get a non-teaching degreeGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    See Gross, H.-E., Das sich wandelnde Verhältnis von Mathematik und Produktion, in: Plath/Sandkühler (eds) Theorie und Labor Köln 1978 p.253Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Timerding, H.E. Die Verbreitung mathematischen Wissens und mathematischer Auffassung (III.Teil,1.Abteilung von “Die Kultur der Gegenwart”) Leipzig/Berlin 1914 p.110Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Timerding loc.cit. p.114Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Timerding loc.cit. p.119Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paulsen loc.cit. p.531Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cf. Mottek Wirtschaftsgeschichte Deutschlands Berlin(GDR) 1969,p.76 and p.130Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    See Project “Mathematik in der Industriegesellschaft”, Berufs- und Ausbildungsstatistik im Fach Mathematik, Mimeo Bielefeld 1975 p.29Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A survey about the actual working areas is given by the empirical studies of the Project “Mathematik in der Industriegesellschaft” at the University of Bielefeld, published in the Materialien zur Analyse der Berufspraxis des Mathematikers vol. 1 (1971) to vol. 25 (1980)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weiß, E.A. “Mathematiker im Volksleben” Deutsche Mathematik 2 (1937) p.379MATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kamke, E. “In welche Berufe gehen Mathematiker außer den Schuldienst noch über, und was muß auf den Hochschulen für sie geschehen?” Jahresberichte der DMV (Deutsche Mathematiker Vereinigung) 47 (1937) p.250Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kamke, E. loc.cit. p.250Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    When representing the working process, it is mainly referred to Braun, H. Geschichte der Lebensversicherung und der Lebensversicherungstechnik Berlin 1925, second unchanged edition Berlin (West) 1963MATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Braun, H. loc.cit. p.16Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Specifications according to Braun, H. loc.cit. p.168,p.269 and p.350Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Specifications according to Lorey “Das Studium der Versicherungsmathematik” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungs-Wissenschaft 22 (1922) p.283Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lorey loc.cit. p.283Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lorey loc.cit. p.283Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    According to Manes, A. Versicherungswissenschaft an deutschen Hochschulen Berlin 1903 p.30Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Manes quoted loc.cit. p.30Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    See Manes loc.cit. p.8Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    See Manes loc.cit. p.30Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    See Manes loc.cit. p.16Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    More detailed specifications see Braun, H. loc.cit.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ellger, W. “Der Mathematiker in der Lebensversicherung” Materialien zur Analyse der Berufspraxis des Mathematikers vol.6 Bielefeld 1972 p.64Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Project “Mathematik in der Industriegesellschaft” Mathematiker mit abgeschlossenem Hochschulstudium in privaten Versicherungsgesellschaften in der BRD 1971–1973 Mimeo Bielefeld 1974, especially p.8Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    According to Pritzkoleit Wem gehört Deutschland Wien/ München/Basel 1957 p.247Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Handelsblatt December 16th, 1971Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Braun, H. loc.cit. p.66Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ehrenzweigs Assekuranz-Jahrbuch (Wien) 16 (1895)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ellger, W. loc.cit. p.66Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    According to Braun, H. loc.cit. p.234Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    The text of the lecture can be found as an annex in Manes loc.cit. p.64Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    von Bortkiewicz, p.66 in Manes,loc.cit.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

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  • Horst-Eckart Gross

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