The Application of Scientific Evidence to the Issues of Use of Animals In Research: The Evolutionary Dimension in the Problem of Animal Awareness

  • Theodore Holmes Bullock


It would help in the search for a common ground on the use of animals in research, as well as in the search for alternative models, if we remembered the wide range of animals, from protozoans to vertebrates and the wide range of vertebrates, from lampreys to primates. It is the purpose of this essay to point out the significance of that statement and its implications ¡ª for some common habits of thought, and for official guidelines and legislation. The remarkable situation is that many statements about the awareness or feelings of animals made by otherwise scientific individuals, and some official positions of bodies of scientists, overlook the consequences of two great achievements of science: the evidence that the nervous system is particularly involved in mediating feeling and awareness, and the evidence that the nervous system has evolved, from a very humble to a very advanced status, not only across the whole animal kingdom but among the vertebrates.


Nonhuman Primate Mental Capacity Evolutionary Dimension Feature Article Official Guideline 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore Holmes Bullock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurosciences 0201University of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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