General Introduction

An Essay on the Discovery of Sensory Receptors and the Assignment of their Functions Together with an Introduction to Electroreceptors
  • Theodore H. Bullock


Addition to the known roster of sense receptors, not merely of a new organ or example but of a new class or major modality, is a rare event. The prediction, discovery, and establishment of electroreceptors is a case history of extreme interest not only for the intrinsic insight into the life of some lower vertebrates that see the world through a new sense but also for the lessons it teaches about identifying and classifying receptors by function. This may be the most useful way to introduce a section on specialized receptors in lower vertebrates.


Lateral Line Sense Organ General Introduction Electric Organ Electric Organ Discharge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References (excluding references to chapters in this volume)

  1. Adey, W.R.: Slow electrical phenomena in the central nervous system. Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 7, 75 - 180 (1969).Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, M.V.L.: Electroreceptors in mormyrids. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 30, 245 - 262 (1965).Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, M.V.L.: Mechanisms of electroreception. In: Lateral Line Detectors, P. CAHN, Ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press 1967.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, M.V.L.: Comparative physiology: electric organs. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 32, 471 - 528 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, F.A.: Magnetic response of an organism and its lunar relationships. Biol. Bull. 118, 382 - 392 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, F.A.: Responses of the planarian, Dugesia, and the protozoan, Paramecium, to very weak horizontal magnetic fields. Biol. Bull. 123, 264 - 281 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, F.A.: Effects and after-effects of reversals of the horizontal magnetic vector. Nature (Lond.) 209, 533 - 535 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bullock, T.H., Caxcursu, S.: Further analysis of sensory coding in electroreceptors of electric fish. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 54, 422 - 429 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bullock, T.H., Hagrw.RA, S., Kiisano, K., Negishi, K.: Evidence for a category of electro-receptors in the lateral line of gymnotid fishes. Science 134, 1426 - 1427 (1961).Google Scholar
  10. Cleworth-Black, P.: The role of electrical discharges in the non-reproductive social behavior of Gymnotus carapo L. (Gymnotidae Pisces). Anim. Behay. Monog. 31, 1 - 77 (1970).Google Scholar
  11. Coates, C.W., Altahirano, M., Grundfest, H.: Activity in electrogenic organs of knife- fishes. Science 120, 845 - 846 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dijrgraaf, S., Kalmijn, A.J.: Verhaltungsversuche zur Funktion der Lorenzinischen Ampullen. Naturwissenschaften 49, 400 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dijicgraaf, S., Ku Mrjn, A. J.: Untersuchungen über die Funktion der Lorenzinischen Ampullen an Haifisch. Z. vergl. Physiol. 47, 438 - 456 (1963).Google Scholar
  14. Enright, J. T.: Responses of an amphipod to pressure changes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 7, 131 - 145 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fessard, A., Szabo, T.: Mise en evidence d'un récepteur sensible à l'électricité dans la peau des Mormyres. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 253, 1859 - 1860 (1961).Google Scholar
  16. Hagiwara, S., Morita, H.: Coding mechanisms of electroreceptor fibers in some electric fish. J. Neurophysiol. 26, 551 - 567 (1963).Google Scholar
  17. Hagiwara, S., Kusano, K., Negisba, K.: Physiological properties of electroreceptors of some gymnotids. J. Neurophysiol. 25, 430 - 449 (1962).Google Scholar
  18. Hagivura, S., SZABO, T., ENGER, P. S.: Physiological properties of electroreceptors in the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus. J. Neurophysiol. 28, 775 - 783 (1965a).Google Scholar
  19. Hagiwara, S., Szaso, T., Enger, P. S.: Electroreceptor mechanisms in a high-frequency weakly electric fish, Sternarchus albilrons. J. Neurophysiol. 28, 784-799 (1965 b).Google Scholar
  20. Hensel, H.: Quantitative Beziehungen zwischen Temperaturreiz und Aktionspotentialen der Lorenzinischen Ampullen. Z. vergl. Physiol. 37, 509 - 526 (1955).Google Scholar
  21. Jacobs, H.L., Sharma, K.N.: Taste versus calories: sensory and metabolic signals in the control of food intake. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 157, 1084 - 1125 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kalmijn, A.J.: Electro-perception in sharks and rays. Nature (Lond.) 212, 1232 - 1233 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kalmijn, A.J.: The electric sense of sharks and rays. J. exp. Biol. 55, 371 - 383 (1971).Google Scholar
  24. Katsuki, Y., Hashimoto, T.: Chemoreception in the lateral-line system of bony fish. Proc. Jap. Acad. 45, 209 - 214 (1969).Google Scholar
  25. Kennedy, D.: Neural photoreception in a lamellibranch mollusc. J. gen. Physiol. 44, 277 - 299 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lindauer, M., Martin, H.: Magnetic effect on dancing bees. In: Animal Orientation and Navigation, S.R. GALLER et al.,Eds., NASA, Washington, D.C. 1972.Google Scholar
  27. Lissmann, H.W.: Continuous electrical signals from the tail of a fish, Gymnarchus niloticus Cuv. Nature (Lond.) 167, 201 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lissmann, H.W.: On the function and evolution of electric organs in fish. J. exp. Biol. 35, 156 - 191 (1958).Google Scholar
  29. Lissmann, H. W., Machin, K.E.: The mechanism of object location in Gymnarchus niloticus and similar fish. J. exp. Biol. 35, 451 - 486 (1958).Google Scholar
  30. Lissmann, H.W., Mullinger, A.M.: Organization of ampullary electric receptors in Gymnotidae (Pisces). Proc. roy. Soc. B. 169, 345 - 378 (1968).Google Scholar
  31. Loewenstein, W.R.: Mechanisms of nerve impulse initiation in a pressure receptor (Lorenzinian ampulla). Nature (Lond.) 188, 1034 - 1035 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Loewenstein, W.R., Isumo, N.: Sodium chloride sensitivity and electro-chemical effects in a Lorenzinian ampulla. Nature (Lond.) 194, 292 - 294 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Machin, K.E.: Electric receptors. Symp. Soc. exp. Biol. 16, 227 - 244 (1962).Google Scholar
  34. Machin, K.E., Lissmann, H.W.: The mode of operation of the electric receptors in Gymnarchus niloticus. J. exp. Biol. 37, 801 - 811 (1960).Google Scholar
  35. Mohres, F. P.: Elektrische Entladungen im Dienst der Revierabgrenzung. Naturwissenschaften 44, 431 - 432 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murray, R.W.: The response of the ampullae of Lorenzini to mechanical stimulation. J. exp. Biol. 37, 417 - 424 (1960).Google Scholar
  37. Murray, R.W.: The response of the ampullae of Lorenzini to electrical stimulation. J. exp. Biol. 39, 119 - 128 (1962).Google Scholar
  38. Paintal, A.S.: The mechanism of excitation of type J receptors, and the J reflex. In: Breathing, R. Porter, Ed. London: Churchill 1970.Google Scholar
  39. Perkel, D., Bullocx, T.H.: Neural coding. Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 6, 221-348 (1968). PROSSER, C. L.: Action potentials in the nervous system of the crayfish. II. Res.onses to illumination of the eye and caudal ganglion. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 4, 363 - 377 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sand, A.: The function of the ampullae of Lorenzini with some observations on the effect of temperature on sensory rhythms. Proc. roy. Soc. B. 125, 524 - 553 (1938).Google Scholar
  41. Scaeich, H., Bullock, T.H., Hamstra, R.H., Ja.: Coding properties of two classes of afferent nerve fibers: high-frequency electroreceptors in the electric fish, Eigenmannia. J. Neurophysiol. 36, 39 - 60 (1973).Google Scholar
  42. Suga, N.: Electrosensitivity of specialized and ordinary lateral line organs of the electric fish, Gymnotus carapo. In: Lateral Line Detectors, P. CAHN, Ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press 1967.Google Scholar
  43. Szabo, T.: Spontaneous electrical activity of cutaneous receptors in mormyrids. Nature (Lond.) 194, 600 - 601 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Szabo, T.: Elektrorezeptoren und Tätigkeit des elektrischen Organs der Mormyriden. Naturwissenschaften 50, 447 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Szabo, T.: Sense organs of the lateral line system in some electric fish of the Gymnotidae, Mormyridae and Gymnarchidae. J. Morph. 117, 229 - 249 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Szaso, T., Fessard, A.: Le fonctionnement des électrorécepteurs étudié chez les Mormyres. J. Physiol. (Paris) 57, 343 - 360 (1965).Google Scholar
  47. Szabo, T., Kalmijn, A.J., Enger, P.S., Bullock, T.H.: Microampullary organs and a sub-mandibular sense organ in the fresh water ray, Potamotrygon. J. comp. Physiol. 79, 15 - 27 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Teazuolo, C.A., Bullocx, T.H.: Measurement of imposed voltage gradient adequate to modulate neuronal firing. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 42, 687 - 694 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Weltschko, W.: The influence of magnetic total intensity and inclination on directions preferred by migrating European robins, Erithacus rubecula. In: Animal Orientation and Navigation, S.R. Galler, K. Schmidt-Koenig, G.J. Jacobs, R.E. Belleville, Eds., Nasa SP-262, Washington, D.C. 1972.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore H. Bullock
    • 1
  1. 1.La JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations