Advertisement

Microfabric and Compositional Clues to Dominant Mud Mineralogy of Micrite Precursors

  • Zakaria Lasemi
  • Philip Sandberg
Part of the Frontiers in Sedimentary Geology book series (SEDIMENTARY)

Summary

In an earlier study based mainly on a micrite layer in the Pleistocene Miami Oolite in southern Florida, Lasemi and Sandberg (1984) found that microfabric and composition in micrites may be related to the original mineralogy of the precursor lime mud. This chapter takes a broader look at Cenozoic (mainly Plio-Pleistocene) micritic limestones to evaluate the role of original mineralogy in the evolution of microfabric and composition in fine-grained limestones. A number of shallow marine micrites were examined from core or outcrop samples (southern Florida, the Bahamas, and Yucatán, Mexico). Microfabric and compositional data for these samples studied revealed two distinct micrite types (Table 13.1). These types can be interpreted as alteration products of aragonite-dominated precursors (hence, ADP micrites) or calcite-dominated precursors (hence, CDP micrites). The diagenetic microfabrics of monomineralic allochems of known aragonite or HMC (high-magnesium calcite) mineralogy provide strong evidence supporting the inference of mineralogic control on the generation of ADP or CDP micrite microfabrics. The relationship between strontium contents and crystal size in micrites refutes interpretations of aggrading neomorphism of the coarser (“microsparitic”) ADP micrites from the finer CDP micrites. The relatively low strontium contents of CDP micrites also suggest that calcites in the mud precursor were mainly HMC. Taken together, these Cenozoic ADP and CDP micrites can serve as guides for the recognition of original mineralogies in lime mud precursors of ancient fine-grained limestones.

Keywords

Sedimentary Petrology Scanning Electron Microscope Photomicrograph Aragonite Needle Etched Section Original Mineralogy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berthold, W.U., 1976. Biomineralisation bei milioliden Foraminiferen und die Matrizen-Hypothese. Naturwissenschaften, v. 63, p. 196–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berthold, W.U. and M. Spindler, 1978. Cytological and ecological aspects of the morphogenesis in Recent and fossil protistan skeletons. Neues Jahrbuch der Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, v. 157, p. 85–91.Google Scholar
  3. Boardman, M.R., 1976. Lime mud deposition in a tropical island lagoon, Bight of Abaco, Bahamas. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 121 p.Google Scholar
  4. Boardman, M.R., Z. Lasemi, and C.K. Carney, 1989. Lime mud in ooid tidal channels: Joulters Cays and Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 21 (6), p. A291.Google Scholar
  5. Bosence, D.W.J., R.J. Rowlands, and M.L. Quine, 1985. Sedimentology and budget of a Recent carbonate mound, Florida Keys. Sedimentology, v. 32, p. 317–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bosselini, A., 1964. Sul significato genetico e ambientale di alcuni tipi di rocce calcaree in base alle più recenti classificazioni. Memoire de museo di storia naturale della Venezia tridentina (Trento), v. 15 (2), p. 1–58.Google Scholar
  7. Brand, U. and J. Veizer, 1980. Chemical diagenesis of a multicomponent carbonate system 1. Trace elements. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 50, p. 1219–1236.Google Scholar
  8. Cloud, P.E., Jr., 1962. Environment of calcium carbonate deposition west of Andros Island, Bahamas. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper, v. 350, p. 1–138.Google Scholar
  9. Dreifuss, S.M., 1977. Textural and compositional changes during diagenesis of high-Mg calcite skeletons. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 157 p.Google Scholar
  10. Enos, P. and L.H. Sawatsky, 1981. Pore networks in Holocene carbonate sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 51, p. 961–985.Google Scholar
  11. Fischer, A.G., S. Honjo, and R.E. Garrison, 1967. Electron micrographs of limestones and their nannofossils. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, 141 p.Google Scholar
  12. Folk, R.L., 1959. Practical petrographic classification of limestones. Bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 43, p. 1–38.Google Scholar
  13. Folk, R.L., 1965. Some aspects of recrystallization in ancient limestones, In: Pray, L.C. and R.C. Murray (eds.), Dolomitization and Limestone Diagenesis. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, v. 13, p. 14–48.Google Scholar
  14. Hathaway, J.C. and E.C. Robertson, 1961. Microtexture of artificially consolidated aragonitic mud: United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 424, p. 301–304.Google Scholar
  15. Hoffmann, H., 1983. X-ray diffraction analysis of mineralogy in recent lime muds, Florida Bay. Unpublished B.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 72 p.Google Scholar
  16. Husseini, S.I. and R.K. Matthews, 1972. Distribution of high-magnesium calcite in lime muds of the Great Bahama Bank: Diagenetic Implication. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 42, p. 179–182.Google Scholar
  17. Land, L.S., 1967. Diagenesis of skeletal carbonates. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 37, p. 914–930.Google Scholar
  18. Lasemi, Z., 1983. Recognition of original mineralogy in micrites and its genetic and diagenetic implications. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 131 p.Google Scholar
  19. Lasemi, Z. and P.A. Sandberg, 1984. Transformation of aragonite-dominated lime muds to microcrystalline limestones. Geology, v. 12, p. 420–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lasemi, Z., M.R. Boardman, and P.A. Sandberg, 1989. Cement origin of supratidal dolomite, Andros Island, Bahamas. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 89, p. 249–257.Google Scholar
  21. Lasemi, Z., P.A. Sandberg, and M.R. Boardman, 1990. New microtextural criterion for differentiation of compaction and early cementation in fine grained limestones. Geology, v. 18, p. 370–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leighton, M.W. and C. Pendexter, 1962. Carbonate rock types. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, v. 1, p. 33–61.Google Scholar
  23. Logan, B.W., G.R. Davies, J.F. Read, and D.E. Cebulski, 1970. Carbonate sedimentation and environments, Shark Bay, Western Australia. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 13, 223 p.Google Scholar
  24. Lowenstam, H.A., 1955. Aragonite needles secreted by algae and some sedimentary implications. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 25, p. 270–272.Google Scholar
  25. Lowenstam, H.A. and S. Epstein, 1957. On the origin of sedimentary aragonite needles of the Great Bahama Bank. Journal of Geology, v. 65, p. 364–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Macintyre, I.G., 1977. Distribution of submarine cements in a modern Caribbean fringing reef, Galeta Point, Panama. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 47, p. 503–516.Google Scholar
  27. Matthews, R.K., 1966. Genesis of Recent lime mud in southern British Honduras. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 36, p. 428–454.Google Scholar
  28. Matthews, R.K., 1968. Carbonate diagenesis: equilibration of sedimentary mineralogy to the subaerial environment; coral cap of Barbados, West Indies. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 38, p. 1110–1119.Google Scholar
  29. McManus, K.M. and J.D. Rimstidt, 1982. Aqueous aragonite to calcite transformation: a geometry controlled dissolution-precipitation reaction. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 14, p. 562.Google Scholar
  30. Milliman, J.D., 1974. Marine Carbonates, Springer-Verlag, New York, 375 p.Google Scholar
  31. Milliman, J.D. and J. Müller, 1973. Precipitation and lithification of magnesian calcite in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Sedimentology, v. 20, p. 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Milliman, J.D., D.A. Ross, and T.L. Ku, 1969. Precipitation and lithification of deep-sea carbonates in the Red Sea. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 39, p. 724–736.Google Scholar
  33. Morrow, D.W. and I.R. Mayers, 1978. Simulation of limestone diagenesisa model based on strontium depletion. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 15, p. 376–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moshier, S.O., 1989. Microporosity in micritic limestones: a review. Sedimentary Geology, v. 63, p. 193–213.Google Scholar
  35. Müller, G. and J. Müller, 1967. Mineralogisch-sedimentpetrographische and chemische Untersuchungen an einen Bank-Sediment (Cross-Bank) der Florida Bay, U.S.A. Neues Jahrbuch Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, v. 106, p. 257–286.Google Scholar
  36. Neumann, A.C. and L.S. Land, 1975. Lime mud deposition and calcareous algae in the Bight of Abaco, Bahamas: A budget. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 45, p. 763–786.Google Scholar
  37. Oti, M. and G. Müller, 1985. Textural and mineralogical changes in coralline algae during meteoric diagenesis: an experimental approach. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, v. 151, p. 163–195.Google Scholar
  38. Papenguth, H.W., 1991. Experimental diagenesis of lime mud. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  39. Pingitore, N., 1982. The role of diffusion during carbonate diagenesis. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 52, p. 27–39.Google Scholar
  40. Popp, B.N., T.F. Anderson, and P.A. Sandberg, 1986. Brachiopods as indicators of original compositions in some Paleozoic limestones. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 97, p. 1262–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sandberg, P.A., 1983. An oscillating trend in Phanerozoic non-skeletal carbonate mineralogy. Nature, v. 305, p. 19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sandberg, P.A., 1984. Recognition criteria for calcitized skeletal and non-skeletal aragonites. Palaeontographica Americana, v. 54, p. 272–281.Google Scholar
  43. Sandberg, P.A., 1985. Aragonite cements and their occurrence in ancient limestones. In: Schneidermann, N. and P.M. Harris (eds.), Carbonate Cements. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, v. 36, p. 33–57.Google Scholar
  44. Sartori, R., 1974. Modern deep-sea magnesian calcite in the central Tyrrhenian Sea. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 44, p. 1313–1322.Google Scholar
  45. Shinn, E.A., R.P. Steinen, B.H. Lidz, and P.K. Swart, 1989. Whitings, a Sedimentologic Dilemma. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 59, p. 147–161.Google Scholar
  46. Stehli, F.G. and J. Hower, 1961. Mineralogy and early diagenesis of carbonate sediments. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 31, p. 358–371.Google Scholar
  47. Steinen, R.P., 1978. On the diagenesis of lime mud: scanning electron microscopic observations of subsurface material from Barbados, W. I. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 48, p. 1139–1148.Google Scholar
  48. Steinen, R.P., 1982. SEM observations on the replacement of Bahaman aragonitic mud by calcite. Geology, v. 10, p. 471–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Towe, K.M. and C. Hemleben, 1976. Diagenesis of magnesian calcite: evidence from miliolacean foraminifera. Geology, v. 4, p. 337–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Veizer, J., 1983. Chemical diagenesis of carbonates: Theory and application of trace element technique. In: Arthur, M. (ed.), Stable Isotopes in Sedimentary Geology. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Short Course, v. 10(3), p. 13–100.Google Scholar
  51. Veizer, J. and R. Demovic, 1974. Strontium as a tool in facies analysis. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 44, p. 93–115.Google Scholar
  52. Ward, W.C., A.E. Weidie, and W. Back, 1985. Geology and hydrogeology of the Yucatan and Quaternary geology of northeastern Yucatan Peninsula. New Orleans Geological Society, New Orleans, LA, 160 p.Google Scholar
  53. Wardlaw, N., A. Oldershaw, and M. Stout, 1978. Transformation of aragonite to calcite in a marine gastropod. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 15, p. 1861–1866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wiggins, W.D., 1985. Geochemical signatures in carbonate matrix and their relation to deposition and diagenesis, Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone, Central Texas. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 55, p. 771–783.Google Scholar
  55. Wolf, K.H., 1965. Grain-diminution of algal colonies to micrite. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 35, p. 420–427.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zakaria Lasemi
  • Philip Sandberg

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations