In Chapter 3 we discussed probabilistic methods for quickly recognizing composite numbers. If a number is not declared composite by such a test, it is either prime, or we have been unlucky in our attempt to prove the number composite. Since we do not expect to witness inordinate strings of bad luck, after a while we become convinced that the number is prime. We do not, however, have a proof; rather, we have a conjecture substantiated by numerical experiments. This chapter is devoted to the topic of how one might actually prove that a number is prime.
KeywordsPrime Factor Primitive Root Modular Multiplication Chinese Remainder Theorem Fermat Number
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