Matrix Formulation of the Eigenvalue Problem
The earliest published version of modern quantum mechanics was Heisenberg’s formulation, known asmatrix mechanics1 In it, Heisenberg turned away from classical quantities that could not be measured experimentally and considered “observable magnitudes” expressible as elements of two dimensional arrays. Heisenberg’s empirical rules for combining these magnitudes were identical to mathematical rules for combining matrices that were just at that time being developed by the mathematicians at Göttingen in Germany where Heisenberg was working as a physicist.
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