Circumventricular Organs and Cardiovascular Homeostasis

  • Alastair V. Ferguson
  • Jaideep S. Bains
  • Vicki L. Lowes


Since the first anatomical description of the circumventricular organs (CVOs) as a structurally distinct group of regions in the central nervous system (CNS), a rapidly emerging body of evidence has implicated the CVOs as physiologically significant autonomic control centers located at the blood-brain interface. Specialized features of these structures such as their extensive vasculature and lack of the normal blood-brain barrier (i. e., capillaries have a fenestrated endothelium) support an involvement of the CVOs in blood-brain communication. Such information transfer could potentially be from blood to neuron, from neuron to blood, or conceivably between cerebrospinal fluid and either the circulation or neurons. The median eminence and neurohypophysis provide persuasive examples of CVOs in which the primary direction of communication is apparently from neural tissue (hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons) to the circulation. Within such a framework, the lack of the normal blood-brain barrier presumably facilitates diffusion of released hypothalamic peptides from axonal terminals into the blood stream following secretion. The major role of such CVOs in cardiovascular regulation is thus related to the specific hormones released at these regions (e. g., vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone) and their endocrine functions in control of the circulation. Such information is the subject of several excellent reviews (Cowley, 1988; Bisset and Chowdrey, 1988), and so will not be considered in detail in this chapter.


Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Area Postrema Circumventricular Organ Cardiovascular Homeostasis Subfornical Organ 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Applegate RJ, Hasser EM, Bishop VS (1987): Vagal cold block in area postrema lesioned dogs: Interaction of vasopressin and sympathetic nervous system. Am J Physiol 252:H135–H141Google Scholar
  2. Averill DB, Diz DI, Barnes KL, Ferrario CM (1987): Pressor responses of angiotensin II microinjected into the dorsomedial medulla of the dog. Brain Res 414:294–300Google Scholar
  3. Barnes KL, Ferrario CM, Conomy JP (1979): Comparison of the hemodynamic changes produced by electrical stimulation of the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarii in the dog. Circ Res 45:136–143Google Scholar
  4. Bergmann GH (1831): Neve untersuchungen uber die innere organisation des Gehirns. Helwing p. 93Google Scholar
  5. Bickerton RK, Buckley JP (1961): Evidence for a central mechanism in angiotensin induced hypertension. Proc Soc Exp Biol 106:834–836Google Scholar
  6. Bisset GW, Chowdrey HS (1988): Control of release of vasopressin by neuroendocrine reflexes. Q J Exp Physiol 73:811–872Google Scholar
  7. Borison HL (1974): Area postrema: Chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting—is that all? Life Sci 14:1807–1817Google Scholar
  8. Borison HL, Borison R, McCarthy LE (1984): Role of the area postrema in vomiting and related functions. Fed Proc 43:2955–2958Google Scholar
  9. Borison HL, Brizzee KR (1951): Morphology of emetic chemoreceptor trigger zone in cat medulla oblongata. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 77:38–42Google Scholar
  10. Brizzee BL, Walker BR (1990): Vasopressinergic augmentation of cardiac baroreceptor reflex in conscious rats. Am J Physiol 258:R860–R88Google Scholar
  11. Brody MJ (1988): Central nervous system and mechanisms of hypertension. Clin Physiol Biochem 6:230–239Google Scholar
  12. Brody MJ, Johnson AK (1980): Role of the anteroventral third ventricle region in fluid and electrolyte balance, arterial pressure regulation and hypertension. In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, Martini L, Ganong WF, eds. New York: Raven PressGoogle Scholar
  13. Cammermeyer J (1947): Is the human area postrema a neuro-vegetative nucleus? Acta Anat 2:294–320Google Scholar
  14. Carpenter DO, Briggs DB, Knox AP, Strominger N (1988): Excitation of area postrema neurons by transmitters, peptides, and cyclic nucleotides. J Neurophysiol 59:358–369Google Scholar
  15. Carpenter DO, Briggs DB, Strominger N (1984): Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of peptide-induced emesis in dogs. Fed Proc 43:2952–2954Google Scholar
  16. Casto R, Phillips I (1984): Cardiovascular actions of microinjections of angiotensin II in the brain stem of rats. Am J Physiol 246:R811–R816Google Scholar
  17. Castren E, Saavedra JM (1989): Angiotensin II receptors in paraventricular nucleus, subfornical organ, and pituitary gland of hypophysectomized, adrenalectomized, and vasopressin-deficient rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:725–729Google Scholar
  18. Cedarbaum JM, Aghajanian GK (1978): Afferent projections to the rat locus coeruleus as determined by a retrograde tracing technique. J Comp Neurol 178:1–16Google Scholar
  19. Ciriello J, Hrycyshyn AW, Calaresu FR (1981): Horseradish peroxidase study of brain stem projections of carotid sinus and aortic depressor nerves in the cat. J Auton Nerv Syst 4:43–61Google Scholar
  20. Ciriello J, Kline RL, Zhang TX, Caverson MM (1984): Lesions of the paraventricular nucleus alter the development of spontaneous hypertension in the rat. Brain Res 310:355–359Google Scholar
  21. Ciriello J, Macchi A, Caverson MM (1986): Lesions of the subfornical organ (SFO) attenuate the increase in arterial pressure after aortic baroreceptor denervation. Fed Proc 45:876Google Scholar
  22. Contreras RJ, Beckstead RM, Norgren R (1982): The central projections of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves: an autoradiographic study in the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst 6:303–322Google Scholar
  23. Cowley AW Jr (1988): Vasopressin and blood pressure regulation. Clin Physiol Biochem 6:150–162Google Scholar
  24. Davies RO, Kalia M (1981): Carotid sinus nerve projections to the brain stem in the cat. Brain Res Bull 6:531–541Google Scholar
  25. Dellman HD, Simpson JB (1979): The subfornical organ. Int Rev Cytol 58:333–421Google Scholar
  26. Donevan SD, Ferguson AV (1988): Subfornical organ and cardiovascular influences on identified septal neurons. Am J Physiol 254:R544–R551Google Scholar
  27. Faraci FM, Choi J, Baumbach GL, Mayhan WG, Heistad DD (1989): Microcirculation of the area postrema. Permeability and vascular responses. Circ Res 65:417–425Google Scholar
  28. Feiten DL, Harrigan P, Burnett BT, Cummings JP (1981): Fourth ventricular tanycytes: A possible relationship with monoaminergic nuclei. Brain Res Bull 6:427–436Google Scholar
  29. Ferguson AV (1988): Paraventricular nucleus neurons projecting to the dorsomedial medulla are influenced by systemic angiotensin. Brain Res Bull 20:197–201Google Scholar
  30. Ferguson AV, Bourque CW, Renaud LP (1985): Subfornical organ and supraoptic nucleus connections with septal neurons in rats. Am J Physiol 249:R214–R218Google Scholar
  31. Ferguson AV, Day TA, Renaud LP (1984a): Subfornical organ efferents influence the excitability of neurohypophysial and tuberoinfundibular paraventricular nucleus neurons in the rat. Neuroendocrinology 39:423–428Google Scholar
  32. Ferguson AV, Day TA, Renaud LP (1984b): Subfornical organ stimulation excites paraventricular neurons projecting to the dorsal medulla. Am J Physiol 247:R 1088–R1092Google Scholar
  33. Ferguson AV, Kasting NW (1986): Electrical stimulation in the subfornical organ increases plasma vasopressin concentrations in the conscious rat. Am J Physiol 251:R712–717Google Scholar
  34. Ferguson AV, Marcus P (1988): Area postrema stimulation induced cardiovascular changes in the rat. Am J Physiol 255:R855–R860Google Scholar
  35. Ferguson AV, Renaud LP (1984): Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus lesions decrease pressor responses to subfornical organ stimulation. Brain Res 305:361–364Google Scholar
  36. Ferguson AV, Smith P (1990): Cardiovascular responses induced by endothelin microinjection into area postrema. Reg Peptides 27:75–85Google Scholar
  37. Ferguson AV, Smith P (1991a): Circulating endothelin influences area postrema neurons. Reg Peptides 32:11–21Google Scholar
  38. Ferguson AV, Smith P (1991b): Autonomic mechanisms underlying area postrema stimulation-induced cardiovascular responses in rats. Am J Physiol 261:R1–R8Google Scholar
  39. Ferrario CM (1983): Central nervous system mechanisms of blood pressure control in normotensive and hypertensive states. Chest 83(Suppl):331–335Google Scholar
  40. Ferrario CM, Barnes KL, Szilagyi JE, Brosnihan KB (1979): Physiological and pharmacological characterization of the area postrema pressor pathways in the normal dog. Hypertension 1:235–245Google Scholar
  41. Ferrario CM, Gildenberg PL, McCubbin JW (1972): Cardiovascular effects of angiotensin mediated by the central nervous system. Circ Res 30:257–262Google Scholar
  42. Fink GD, Bruner CA, Mangiapane ML (1987a): Area postrema is critical for angiotensin-induced hypertension in rats. Hypertension 9:355–361Google Scholar
  43. Fink GD, Bruner CA, Pawloski CM, Blair ML, Skoog KM, Mangiapane ML (1986): Role of the area postrema in hypertension after unilateral artery constriction in the rat. Fed Proc 45:875Google Scholar
  44. Fink GD, Pawloski CM, Blair ML, Mangiapane ML (1987b): The area postrema in deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension in rats. Hypertension 9(Suppl III):III206–III209Google Scholar
  45. Fitzsimons JT (1980): Angiotensin stimulation of the central nervous system. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 87:117–167Google Scholar
  46. Ganong WF (1987): Review of Medical Physiology. East Norwalk: Appleton and LangeGoogle Scholar
  47. Gatti PJ, Dias Souza J, Gillis RA (1988): Increase in coronary vascular resistance produced by stimulating neurons in the region of the area postrema of the cat. Brain Res 448:313–319Google Scholar
  48. Gehlert DR, Gackenheimer SL, Schober DA (1991): Autoradiographic localization of subtypes of angiotensin II antagonist binding in the rat brain. Neuroscience 44(no.2):501–514Google Scholar
  49. Gehlert DR, Speth RC, Wamsley JK (1986): Distribution of [125I] angiotensin II binding sites in the rat brain: a quantitative autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 18:837–856Google Scholar
  50. Gross PM, Kadekaro M, Andrews DW, Sokoloff L, Saavedra JM (1985): Selective metabolic stimulation of the subfornical organ and pituitary neural lobe by peripheral angiotensin II. Peptides 6:145–152Google Scholar
  51. Gross PM, Wainman DS, Shaver SW, Wall KM, Ferguson AV (1990): Metabolic activation of efferent pathways from the rat area postrema. Am J Physiol 258:R788–R797Google Scholar
  52. Gutman MB, Ciriello J, Mogenson GJ (1985): The effect of paraventricular nucleus lesions on cardiovascular responses elicited by stimulation of the subfornical organ in the rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 63:816–824Google Scholar
  53. Gutman MB, Jones DL, Ciriello J (1989): Contribution of nucleus medianus to the drinking and pressor responses to angiotensin II acting at subfornical organ. Brain Res 488:49–56Google Scholar
  54. Hasser EM, Nelson DO, Haywood JR, Bishop VS (1987): Inhibition of renal sympathetic nervous activity by area postrema stimulation in rabbits. Am J Physiol 253:H91–H99Google Scholar
  55. Haywood JR, Fink GD, Buggy J, Phillips MI, Brody MJ (1980): The area postrema plays no role in the pressor action of angiotensin in the rat. Am J Physiol 239:H108–H113Google Scholar
  56. Iovino M, Papa M, Monteleone P, Steardo L (1988): Neuroanatomical and biochemical evidence for the involvement of the area postrema in the regulation of vasopressin release in rats. Brain Res 447:178–182Google Scholar
  57. Iovino M, Steardo L (1985): Thirst and vasopressin secretion following central administration of angiotensin II in rats with lesions of the septal area and subfornical organ. Neuroscience 15:61–67Google Scholar
  58. Jhamandas JH, Lind RW, Renaud LP (1989): Angiotensin II may mediate excitatory neurotransmission from the subfornical organ to the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus: An anatomical and electrophysiological study in the rat. Brain Res 487:52–61Google Scholar
  59. Jhamandas JH, Renaud LP (1986): Diagonal band neurons may mediate arterial baroreceptor input to hypothalamic vasopressin-secreting neurons. Neurosci Lett 65:214–218Google Scholar
  60. Johnson AK (1985): The periventricular anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V): its relationship with the subfornical organ and neural systems involved in maintaining body fluid homeostasis. Brain Res Bull 15:595–601Google Scholar
  61. Jones CR, Hiley CR, Pelton JT, Mohr M (1989): Autoradiographic visualization of the binding sites for [125I] endothelin in rat and human brain. Neurosci Lett 97:276–279Google Scholar
  62. Joy MD, Lowe RD (1970): Evidence that the area postrema mediates the central cardiovascular response to angiotensin II. Nature 228:1303–1304Google Scholar
  63. Kalia M, Mesulam M-M (1980): Brain stem projections of sensory and motor components of the vagus complex in the cat: II. Laryngeal, tracheobronchial, pulmonary, cardiac, and gastrointestinal branches. J Comp Neurol 193:467–508Google Scholar
  64. Knepel W, Nutto D, Meyer DK (1982): Effect of transection of subfornical organ efferent projections on vasopressin release induced by angiotensin or isoprenaline in the rat. Brain Res 248:180–184Google Scholar
  65. Koseki C, Imai M, Hirata Y, Yanagisawa M, Masaki T (1989): Binding sites for endothelin-1 in rat tissues: An autoradiographic study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 13:S153–S154Google Scholar
  66. Lind RW (1985): A review of the neural connections of the subfornical organ. In: Circumventricular Organs and Body Fluids, Gross PM, ed. Boca Raton CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  67. Lind RW, Swanson LW, Ganten D (1984a): Angiotensin II immunoreactive pathways in the central nervous system of the rat: Evidence for a projection from the subfornical organ to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Clin Exp HypertA6:1915–1920Google Scholar
  68. Lind RW, Swanson LW, Ganten D (1984b): Angiotensin II immunoreactivity in the neural afferents and efferents of the subfornical organ of the rat. Brain Res 321:209–215Google Scholar
  69. Lind RW, Swanson LW, Ganten D (1985a): Organization of angiotensin II immunoreactive cells and fibers in the rat central nervous system. Neuroendocrinology 40:2–24Google Scholar
  70. Lind RW, Swanson LW, Sawchenko PE (1985b): Anatomical evidence that neural circuits related to the subfornical organ contain angiotensin II. Brain Res Bull 15:79–82Google Scholar
  71. Lind RW, Ohman LE, Lansing MB, Johnson AK (1983): Transection of subfornical organ neural connections diminishes the pressor response to intravenously infused angiotensin II. Brain Res 275:361–364Google Scholar
  72. Lind RW, Van Hoesen GW, Johnson AK (1982): An HRP study of the connections of the subfornical organ of the rat. J Comp Neurol 210:265–277Google Scholar
  73. Lowes VL, Ferguson AV (1991): Microinjection of angiotensin and vasopressin into the rat area postrema increases blood pressure. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 69:Axviii. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  74. Mangiapane ML, Simpson JB (1980a): Subfornical organ lesions reduce the pressor effect of systemic angiotensin II. Neuroendocrinology 31:380–384Google Scholar
  75. Mangiapane ML, Simpson JB (1980b): Subfornical organ: forebrain site of pressor and dipsogenic action of angiotensin II. Am J Physiol 239:R382–R389Google Scholar
  76. Mangiapane ML, Skoog KM, Rittenhouse P, Blair ML, Sladek CD (1989): Lesion of the area postrema region attenuates hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circ Res 64:129–135Google Scholar
  77. McKinley MJ, Allen A, Clevers J, Denton DA, Mendelsohn FAO (1986): Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin receptors in the sheep brain. Brain Res 375:373–376Google Scholar
  78. Mendelsohn FAO, Quirion R, Saavedra JM, Aguilera G (1984): Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:1575–1579Google Scholar
  79. Miselis R (1981): The efferent projections of the subfornical organ of the rat: A circumventricular organ with a neural network subserving water balance. Brain Res 230:1–23Google Scholar
  80. Morest DK (1960): A study of the structure of the area postrema with Golgi methods. Am J Anat 107:291–303Google Scholar
  81. Oldfield BJ, Hou-Yu A, Silverman A-J (1985): A combined electron microscope HRP and immunocytochemical study of the limbic projections to rat hypothalamic nuclei containing vasopressin and oxytocin neurons. J Comp Neurol 231:221–231Google Scholar
  82. Papas S, Ferguson AV (1990a): Electrophysiological characterization of reciprocal connections between the parabrachial nucleus and the area postrema in the rat. Brain Res Bull 24:577–582Google Scholar
  83. Papas S, Ferguson AV (1990b): Effects of parabrachial stimulation on angiotensin and blood pressure sensitive area postrema neurons. Brain Res Bull 26:269–277Google Scholar
  84. Papas S, Ferguson AV (1991): Electrophysiological evidence of baroreceptor input to area postrema. Am J Physiol 261:R9–R13Google Scholar
  85. Papas S, Smith P, Ferguson AV (1990): Electrophysiological evidence that systemic angiotensin influences rat area postrema neurons. Am J Physiol 258:R70–R76Google Scholar
  86. Phillips MI (1987): Brain angiotensin. In: Circumventricular Organs and Body Fluids. Gross PM, ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  87. Philips PA, Kelly JM, Abrahams JM, Grzonka Z, Paxinos G, Mendelsohn FAO, Johnston CI (1988): Vasopressin receptors in rat brain and kidney: studies using a radio-iodinated VI receptor antagonist. J Hypertens 6(Suppl 4):S550–S553Google Scholar
  88. Pittman QJ, Laurence D, McLean L (1982): Central effects of arginine vasopressin on blood pressure in rats. Endocrinology 110:1058–1060Google Scholar
  89. Plotsky PM, Sutton SW, Bruhn TO, Ferguson AV (1988): Analysis of the role of angiotensin II in the mediation of adrenocorticotropin secretion. Endocrinology 122:538–545Google Scholar
  90. Quirion R, Dalpe M, Dam T-V (1986): Characterization and distribution of receptors for the atrial natriuretic peptides in mammalian brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:174–178Google Scholar
  91. Reid IA (1984): Actions of angiotensin II on the brain: mechanisms and physiological role. Am J Physiol 246:F533–F543Google Scholar
  92. Reid JL, Rubin PC (1987): Peptides and central neural regulation of the circulation. Physiol Rev 67:725–749Google Scholar
  93. Renaud LP, Rogers J, Sgro S (1983): Terminal degeneration in supraoptic nucleus following subfornical organ lesions: Ultrastructural observations in the rat. Brain Res 275:365–368Google Scholar
  94. Rowe BP, Grove KL, Saylor DL, Speth RC (1990): Angiotensin II receptor subtypes in the rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol 186:339–342Google Scholar
  95. Saavedra JM (1986): Atrial natriuretic peptide (6–33) binding sites: decreased number and affinity in the subfornical organ of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 4:S313–S316Google Scholar
  96. Saavedra JM, Correa FMA, Plunkett LM, Israel A, Kurihara M, Shigematsu K (1986a): Binding of angiotensin and atrial natriuretic peptide in brain of hypertensive rats. Nature 320:758–760Google Scholar
  97. Saavedra JM, Israel A, Kurihara M, Fuchs E (1986b): Decreased number and affinity of rat atrial natriuretic peptide (6–33) binding sites in the subfornical organ of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circ Res 58:389–392Google Scholar
  98. Sawchenko PE, Swanson LW (1982): Immunohistochemical identification of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that project to the medulla or to the spinal cord in the rat. J Comp Neurol 205:260–272Google Scholar
  99. Severs WB, Daniels-Severs AE (1973): Effects of angiotensin on the central nervous system. Pharmacol Rev 25:415–449Google Scholar
  100. Sgro S, Ferguson AV, Renaud LP (1984): Subfornical organ-supraoptic nucleus connections: An electrophysiological study in the rat. Brain Res 303:7–13Google Scholar
  101. Shapiro RE, Miselis RR (1985): The central neural connections of the area postrema of the rat. J Comp Neurol 234:344–364Google Scholar
  102. Simpson JB, Routenberg A (1973): Subfornical organ: site of drinking elicitation. Science 181:1172–1174Google Scholar
  103. Skoog KM, Blair ML, Sladek CD, Williams WM, Mangiapane ML (1990): Area postrema: Essential for support of arterial pressure after hemorrhage in rats. Am J Physiol 258:R1472–R148Google Scholar
  104. Skoog KM, Mangiapane ML (1988): Area postrema and cardiovascular regulation in rats. Am J Physiol 254:H963–H969Google Scholar
  105. Smith P, Ferguson AV (1991): Paraventricular efferents influence area postrema neurons. Neuroscience 17:612 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  106. Sonntag M, Schalike W, Brattstrom A (1990): Cardiovascular effects of vasopressin micro-injections into the nucleus tractus solitarii in normotensive rats. J Hypertens 8:417–421Google Scholar
  107. Tanaka J, Kaba H, Saito H, Seto K (1985a): Subfornical organ neurons with efferent projections to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: An electrophysiological study in the rat. Brain Res 346:151–154Google Scholar
  108. Tanaka J, Kaba H, Saito H, Seto K (1985b): Electrophysiological evidence that circulating angiotensin II sensitive neurons in the subfornical organ alter the activity of hypothalamic paraventricular neurohypophyseal neurons in the rat. Brain Res 342:361–365Google Scholar
  109. Tsutsumi K, Saavedra JM (1991): Quantitative autoradiography reveals different angiotensin II receptor subtypes in selected rat brain nuclei. J Neurochem 56:348–351Google Scholar
  110. Undesser KP, Hasser EM, Haywood JR, Johnson AK, Bishop VS (1985): Interactions of vasopressin with the area postrema in arterial baroreflex function in conscious rabbits. Circ Res 56:410–417Google Scholar
  111. Unger T, Rohmeiss P, Demmert G, Ganten D, Lang RE, Luft FC (1986): Differential modulation of the baroreceptor reflex by brain and plasma vasopressin. Hypertension 8(Suppl II):II–157–II–162Google Scholar
  112. van Der Kooy D, Koda LY (1983): Organization of the projections of a circumventricular organ: The area postrema in the rat. J Comp Neurol 219:328–338Google Scholar
  113. Wall KM, Ferguson AV (1992): Endothelin acts at the subfornical organ to influence the activity of putative vasopressin and oxytocin secreting neurons. Brain Res In pressGoogle Scholar
  114. Wall KM, Nasr M, Ferguson AV (1992): Actions of endothelin at the subfornical organ. Brain Res 570:180–187Google Scholar
  115. Weindl A, Sofroniew M (1985): Neuroanatomical pathways related to vasopressin. In: Neurobiology of Vasopressin, Ganten D, Pfaff D, eds. New York: Springer VerlagGoogle Scholar
  116. Wislocki GB, Putnam TJ (1924): Further observations on the anatomy and physiology of the areae postremae. Anat Rec 27:151–156Google Scholar
  117. Yagil C, Sladek CD (1990): Effect of extended exposure to hypertonicity on vasopressin messenger ribonucleic acid content in hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal expiants. Endocrinology 127:1428–1435Google Scholar
  118. Ylitalo P, Karppanen H, Paasonen MK (1974): Is the area postrema a control centre of blood pressure. Nature 274:58–59Google Scholar
  119. Zhang T-X, Ciriello J (1985): Effect of paraventricular nucleus lesions on arterial pressure and heart rate after aortic baroreceptor denervation in the rat. Brain Res 341:101–109Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alastair V. Ferguson
  • Jaideep S. Bains
  • Vicki L. Lowes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations