Central Neural Mechanisms in the Cardiovascular Response to Exercise

  • Vernon S. Bishop
  • Steven W. Mifflin

Abstract

Exercise or locomotion is part of normal behavior and is required for survival in many species. The cardiovascular responses to exercise depend on the intensity of activity and whether the exercise is dynamic or static. The general cardiovascular responses include an increase in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In dynamic exercise, cardiac output increases with increases in oxygen consumption while systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreases markedly. Depending on the workload, adjustments in sympathetic outflow are required to maintain perfusion pressure in the face of the marked decrease in vascular resistance in response to the increased metabolic demands (Rowell, 1986). This may involve mechanisms that directly counteract the potential fall in MAP by vasoconstriction of the skeletal muscle vasculature. In addition, neural mechanisms may redistribute blood flow from visceral areas and nonexercising muscle to active muscle. The major neural mechanisms governing the rapid cardiovascular adjustments to dynamic exercise are the arterial barore-flexes, central command, and skeletal muscle afferent-mediated reflexes (Rowell and O’Leary, 1990).

Keywords

Ischemia Respiration Prostaglandin Resis Cardiol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bauer RM, Iwamoto GA, Waldrop G (1989): Ventrolateral medullary neurons modulate pressor reflex to muscular contraction. Am J Physiol 257:R1154–R1161Google Scholar
  2. Bauer RM, Iwamoto GA, Waldrop TG (1990): Discharge patterns of ventrolateral medullary neurons during muscular contraction. Am J Physiol 259:R606–R611Google Scholar
  3. Bevegärd BS, Shepherd JT (1966): Circulatory effects of stimulating the carotid arterial stretch receptors in man at rest and during exercise. J Clin Invest 45:132–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bishop VS, Malliani A, Thorén P (1983): Cardiac mechanoreceptors. In: Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System. Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow, Shepherd JT, Abboud FM, eds. Bethesda, MD: American Physiology SocietyGoogle Scholar
  5. Blair RW (1991): Convergence of sympathetic, vagal, and other sensory inputs onto neurons in feline ventrolateral medulla. Am J Physiol 260:H1918–H1928Google Scholar
  6. Bristow JD, Brown EB, Cunningham DJC, et al. (1971): Effect of bicycling on the baroreflex regulation of pulse interval. Circ Res 28:582–592Google Scholar
  7. Chung JM, Webber CL Jr, Wurster RD (1979): Ascending spinal pathways for the somatosympathetic A and C reflexes. Am J Physiol 347:H324–H347Google Scholar
  8. Ciriello J, Calaresu FR (1977): Lateral reticular nucleus: a site of somatic and cardiovascular integration in the cat. Am J Physiol 233:R100–R109Google Scholar
  9. Cowley AW Jr, Liard JF, Guyton AC (1973): Role of baroreceptor reflex in the daily control of arterial pressure and other variables in dogs. Circ Res 32:564–576Google Scholar
  10. Crayton SC, Mitchell JH, Payne FC III (1981): Reflex cardiovascular response during injection of capsaicin into skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 240:H315–H319Google Scholar
  11. Daskalopoulos DA, Shepherd JT, Walgenbach SC (1984): Cardiopulmonary reflexes and blood pressure in exercising sinoaortic-denervated dogs. J Appl Physiol 57:1417–1421Google Scholar
  12. DiCarlo SE, Bishop VS (1990): Regional vascular resistance during exercise: Role of cardiac afferents and exercise training. Am J Physiol 258:H842–H847Google Scholar
  13. DiCarlo SE, Bishop VS (1992): Onset of exercise shifts operating point of arterial baroreflex to higher pressures. Am J Physiol 262:H303–307Google Scholar
  14. DiMarco AF, Romaniuk JR, von Euler C, Yamamoto Y (1983): Immediate changes in ventilation and respiratory pattern with onset and cessation of locomotion in the cat. J Physiol 343:1–16Google Scholar
  15. Dorward PK, Korner PI (1987): Does the brain “Remember the absolute blood pressure?” NIPS 2:10–12Google Scholar
  16. Ebert T (1986): Baroreflex responsiveness is maintained during isometric exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 61:797–803Google Scholar
  17. Eldridge FL, Millhorn DE, Kiley JP, Waldrop TG (1985): Stimulation by central command of locomotion, respiration and circulation during exercise. Respir Physiol 59:313–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Freund PR, Rowell LB, Murphy TM, Hobbs SF, Butler SH (1979): Blockade of the pressor response to muscle ischemia by sensory nerve block in man. Am J Physiol 236:H433–H439Google Scholar
  19. Hales JRS, Ludbrook J (1988): Baroreflex participation in redistribution of cardiac output at onset of exercise. J Appl Physiol 64:627–634Google Scholar
  20. Hajduczok G Hade JS, Mark AL, Williams JR, Felder RB (1991): Central command increases sympathetic nerve activity during spontaneous locomotion in cats. Circ Res 69:66–75Google Scholar
  21. Higgins CB, Vatner SF, Franklin D, Braunwald E (1972): Effects of experimentally produced heart failure on the peripheral vascular response to severe exercise in conscious dogs. Circ Res 31:186–194Google Scholar
  22. Hintze TH, Kaley G (1984): Ventricular receptors activated following myocardial prostaglandin synthesis initiate reflex hypotension, reduction in heart rate, and redistribution of cardiac output in the dog. Circ Res 54:239–247Google Scholar
  23. Iwamoto GA, Kaufman MP (1987): Caudal ventrolateral medullary cells responsive to muscular contraction. J Appl Physiol 62(1):149–157Google Scholar
  24. Kalia M, Mei SS, Kao FF (1981): Central projections from ergoreceptors (C Fibers) in muscle involved in cardiopulmonary responses to static exercise. Circ Res 48(6)(Suppl 1):I 53–I 62Google Scholar
  25. Kaufman MP, Botterman BR, Gonyea WJ, Iwamoto GA, Mitchell JH (1982a): Cardiovascular control during static exercise: Central and reflex neural mechanisms. In: Circulation, Neurobiology, and Behavior, O.A. Smith, R.A. Galosy, S.M. Weiss, eds. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  26. Kaufman MP, Iwamoto GA, Longhurst JC, Mitchell JH (1982b): Effects of capsaicin and bradykinin on afferent fibers with endings in skeletal muscle. Circ Res 50:133–139Google Scholar
  27. Kaufman MP, Longhurst JC, Rybicki KJ, Wallach JH, Mitchell JH (1983): Effects of static muscular contraction on impulse activity of groups III and IV afferents in cats. J Appl Physiol 55(1):105–112Google Scholar
  28. Kozelka JW, Chung JM, Wurster RD (1981): Ascending spinal pathways mediating somato-cardiovascular reflexes. J Auton Nerv Syst 3:171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Krasney JA, Levitzky MG, Koehler RC (1975): Sinoaortic contribution to the adjustment of systemic resistance in exercising dogs. J Appl Physiol 36:679–685Google Scholar
  30. Krogh A, Lindhard J (1913): The regulation of respiration and circulation during the initial stages of muscular work. J Physiol (Lond) 47:112–136Google Scholar
  31. Leah J, Menetrey D, de Pommery J (1988): Neuropeptides in long ascending spinal tract cells in the rat; Evidence for parallel processing of ascending information. Neuroscience 24:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ludbrook J, Graham WF (1985): Circulatory responses to onset of exercise: Role of arterial and cardiac baroreflexes. Am J Physiol 248:H457–H467Google Scholar
  33. Ludbrook J, Potocnik SJ (1986): Circulatory changes during spontaneous motor activity: Role of arterial barorcflexes. Am J Physiol 250:H426–H433Google Scholar
  34. Mack G, Nose H, Nadel ER (1988): Role of cardiopulmonary baroreflexes during dynamic exercise. J Appl Physiol 65(4): 1827–1832Google Scholar
  35. Mancia G, Mark AL (1983): Arterial baroreflexes in humans. In: Handbook of Physiology. The Cardiovascular System. Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow, Shepherd JT, Abboud FM, Geiger SR, eds. Bethesda, MD: American Physiology SocietyGoogle Scholar
  36. Mark AL, Victor RG, Nerhed C, Wallin BG (1985): Microneurographic studies of the mechanisms of sympathetic nerve responses to static exercise in humans. Circ Res 57:461–469Google Scholar
  37. Matsukawa K, Wall PT, Wilson LB, Mitchell JH (1990): Reflex responses of renal nerve activity during isometric muscle contraction in cats. Am J Physiol 259:H1380–H1388Google Scholar
  38. McCloskey DI, Mitchell JH (1972): Reflex cardiovascular and respiratory responses originating in exercising muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 224:173–186Google Scholar
  39. McRitchie RJ, Vatner SF, Boettcher D, Heyndrickx GR, Patrick TA, Braunwald E (1976): Role of arterial baroreceptors in mediating cardiovascular response to exercise. Am J Physiol 230:85–89Google Scholar
  40. Melcher A, Donald DE (1981): Maintained ability of carotid baroreflex to regulate arterial pressure during exercise. Am J Physiol 241:H838–H849Google Scholar
  41. Menetrey D, Basbaum AI (1987): Spinal and trigeminal projections to the nucleus of the solitary tract: A possible substrate for somatovisceral and viscerovisceral reflex activation. J Comp Neurol 255:439–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Millhorn DE, Eldridge FL, Waldrop TG, Kiley JP (1987): Diencephalic regulation of respiration and arterial pressure during actual and fictive locomotion in cat. Circ Res 61(Suppl I):I–53–I–59Google Scholar
  43. Minisi AJ, Thames MD (1991): Reflexes from ventricular receptors with vagal afferents. In: Reflex Control of the Circulation, Zucker IH, Gilmore JP, eds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  44. Mitchell JH (1985): Cardiovascular control during exercise: Central and reflex neural mechanisms. Am J Cardiol 55:34D–41DCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mitchell JH, Schmidt RF (1983): Cardiovascular reflex control by afferent fibers from skeletal muscle receptors. In: Handbook of Physiology. The Cardiovascular System. Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow, Shepherd JT, Abboud FM, Geiger SR, eds. Bethesda, MD: American Physiology SocietyGoogle Scholar
  46. Musch TI, Haidet GH, Ordway GA, Longhurst JC, Mitchell JH (1987): Training effects on regional blood flow response to maximal exercise in foxhounds. J Appl Physiol 62:1724–1732Google Scholar
  47. Person RJ (1989): Somatic and vagal afferent convergence on solitary tract neurons in cat: Electrophysiological characteristics. Neuroscience 30(2):283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rowell LB (1986): Circulatory adjustments to dynamic exercise. In: Human Circulation Regulation During Physical Stress, Rowell LB, ed. New York: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  49. Rowell LB, O’Leary DS (1990): Reflex control of the circulation during exercise: Chemoreflexes and mechanoreflexes. J Appl Physiol 69(2):407–418Google Scholar
  50. Rybicki KJ, Stremel RW, Iwamoto GA, Mitchell JH, Kaufman MP (1989): Occlusion of pressor responses to posterior diencephalic stimulation and muscular contraction. Brain Res Bull 22:305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Saito M, Naito M, Mano T (1990): Different responses in skin and muscle sympathetic nerve activity to static muscle contraction. J Appl Physiol 69(6):2085–2090Google Scholar
  52. Scherrer U, Flistrup-Vissing S, Victor RG (1988): Effects of lower-body negative pressure on sympathetic nerve responses to static exercise in humans. Microneurographic evidence against cardiac baroreflex modulation of the exercise pressor reflex. Circulation 78(1):49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Seals DR (1988): Cardiopulmonary baroreflexes do not modulate exercise-induced sympatho-excitation. J Appl Physiol 64(5):2197–2203Google Scholar
  54. Shepherd JT, Blomqvist CG, Lind AR, Mitchell JH, Saltin B (1981): Static (isometric) exercise: retrospection and introspection. Circ Res 48:1179–1188Google Scholar
  55. Sheriff DD, O’Leary DS, Shcher AM, Rowell LB (1990): Baroreflex attenuates pressor response to graded muscle ischemia in exercising dogs. Am J Physiol 258:H305–H310Google Scholar
  56. Smith ML, Graitzer HM, Hudson DL, Raven PB (1988): Baroreflex function in endurance-and static exercise-trained men. J Appl Physiol 64:585–591Google Scholar
  57. Stebbins CL, Brown B, Levin D, Longhurst JC (1988): Reflex effect of skeletal muscle mechanoreceptor stimulation on the cardiovascular system. J Appl Physiol 65(4): 1539–1547Google Scholar
  58. Stornetta RL, Morrison SF, Ruggiero DA, Reis DJ (1989): Neurons of rostral ventrolateral medulla mediate somatic pressor reflex. Am J Physiol 256:R448–R462Google Scholar
  59. Vanhoutte P, Lacroix E, Leusen I (1966): The cardiovascular adaptation of the dog to muscular exercise—Role of the arterial pressoreceptors. Arch Int Physiol Biochem 74:201–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vatner SF (1975): Effects of exercise on distribution of regional blood flows and resistances. In: The Peripheral Circulations, Zebs R, ed. New York: Grune & StrattonGoogle Scholar
  61. Victor RB, Seals DR, Mark AL (1987): Differential control of heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity during dynamic exercise. J Clin Invest 79:508–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Victor RG, Rotto DM, Pryor SL, Kaufman MP (1989): Stimulation of renal sympathetic activity by static contraction: Evidence for mechanoreceptor-induced reflexes from skeletal muscle. Circ Res 64(3):592–599Google Scholar
  63. Vissing SF, Scheuer U, Victor RG (1991): Sympathetic nerve discharge by central command. Circ Res 69:228–238Google Scholar
  64. Waldrop TG, Mullins DC, Millhorn DE (1986): Control of respiration by the hypothalamus and by feedback from contracting muscles in cats. Resp Physiol 64:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Waldrop TG, Stremel RW (1989): Muscular contraction stimulates posterior hypothalamic neurons. Am J Physiol 256:R348–R356Google Scholar
  66. Walgenbach SC, Donald DE (1983a): Inhibition by carotid baroreflex of exercise-induced increases in arterial pressure. Circ Res 52:253–262Google Scholar
  67. Walgenbach SC, Donald DE (1983b): Cardiopulmonary reflexes and arterial pressure during rest and exercise in dogs. Am J Physiol 244:H362–H369Google Scholar
  68. Walker JL, Abboud FM, Mark AL, Thames MD (1980): Interaction of cardiopulmonary and somatic reflexes in humans. J Clin Invest 65:1491–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vernon S. Bishop
  • Steven W. Mifflin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations