The American Herpetofauna and the Interchange

  • P. E. Vanzolini
  • W. Ronald Heyer
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 4)


Amphibians and reptiles are treated together in this chapter because, overall, they have similar and complementary Zoogeographic patterns with respect to the faunal interchange of the Americas. We are each interested in amphibian and reptilian zoogeography, but because we are not systematic specialists in both groups, we have written this Chapter together. The basic amphibian data are discussed by Heyer and the reptile data by Vanzolini.


North America Land Mass Faunal Assemblage Land Bridge Coral Snake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Auffenberg, W., 1971, A new fossil tortoise, with remarks on the origin of South American testudines, Copeia 1971(1):106–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auffenberg, W., 1974, Checklist of fossil land tortoises (Testudinidae), Bull. Florida State Mus. 18(3)1:121–251.Google Scholar
  3. Blair, W. F., 1972, Summary, in: Evolution in the Genus Bufo (W. F. Blair, ed.), University of Texas Press, Austin, pp. 329–343.Google Scholar
  4. Bonaparte, J. F., 1984, El intercambio faunistico de vertebrados continentales entre America del Sur y del Norte a fines del Cretacico, III Congr. Latinoameric. Paleontol., 22 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Brame, A. H., Jr., and Murray, K. F., 1968, Three new slender salamanders (Batrachoseps) with a discussion of relationships and speciation within the genus, Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County Sci. Bull. 4:1–35.Google Scholar
  6. Brame, A. H., Jr., and Wake, D. B., 1963, The salamanders of South America, Los Angeles County Mus. Contrib. Sci. 69:1–72.Google Scholar
  7. Cadle, J. E., 1984, Molecular systematics of Neotropical xenodontine snakes: II. Central American xenodontines, Herpetologica 40:21–30.Google Scholar
  8. Dixon, J. R., 1964, The systematics and distribution of lizards of the genus Phyllodactylus in North and Central America, Sci. Bull. New Mexico State Univ. Research Center, 1:1–139.Google Scholar
  9. Dixon, J. R., and Huey, R. B., 1970, Systematics of the lizards of the gekkonid genus Phyllodactylus of mainland South America, Los Angeles County Mus. Contrib. Sci. 192:1–78.Google Scholar
  10. Estes, R., 1970, Origin of the Recent North American lower vertebrate fauna: an inquiry into the fossil record, Forma et Functio 3:139–163.Google Scholar
  11. Estes, R., 1983, The fossil record and early distribution of lizards, in: Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology (A. G. J. Rhodin and K. Miyata, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 365–398.Google Scholar
  12. Gehlbach, F. R., 1965, Amphibians and reptiles from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of North America: a chronological summary and selected bibliography, Texas J. Sci. 17:56–70.Google Scholar
  13. Greer, A. E., 1970, A subfamilial classification of scincid lizards, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 139:151–184.Google Scholar
  14. Hanken, J., and Wake, D. B., 1982, Genetic differentiation among plethodontid salamanders (genus Bolitoglossa) in Central and South America: Implications for the South American invasion, Herpetologica 38(2):272–287.Google Scholar
  15. Heyer, W. R., 1975, A preliminary analysis of the intergeneric relationships of the frog family Leptodactylidae, Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 199:1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoge, A. R., and Romano-Hoge, S. A. R. W. L., 1981, Poisonous snakes of the world. Part I. Checklist of the pit vipers, Viperoidea, Viperidae, Crotalinae, Mem. Inst. Butantan 42–43(1978–1979):179–309.Google Scholar
  17. Holman, J. A., 1975, Herpetofauna of the Wakeeny local fauna (Lower Pliocene: Clarendonian) of Trego County, Kansas, in: Studies on Cenozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy in Honor of Claude W. Hibbard, Univ. Michigan Pap. Paleontol. 12:49–66.Google Scholar
  18. Holman, J. A., 1977, Upper Miocene snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes) from southeastern Nebraska, J. Herpetol. 11:323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holman, J. A., 1979, A review of North American Tertiary snakes, Publ. Mus. Michigan State Univ. (Paleontol). 1:200–260.Google Scholar
  20. Hutchison, J. H., and Bramble, D. M., 1981, Homology of the plastral scales of the Kinosternidae and related turtles, Herpetologica 37:73–85.Google Scholar
  21. Lynch, J. D., 1971, Evolutionary relationships, osteology, and zoogeography of leptodactyloid frogs, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. 53:1–238.Google Scholar
  22. MacLean, W. P., Kellner, R., and Dennis, H., 1977, Island lists of West Indian amphibians and reptiles, Smithson. Herpetol. Inf. Serv. 40:1–47.Google Scholar
  23. Maxson, L. R., 1984, Molecular probes of phylogeny and biogeography in toads of the widespread genus Bufo. Mol. Biol. Evol. 1:345–356.Google Scholar
  24. Maxson, L. R., and Wilson, A. C., 1975, Albumin evolution and organismal evolution in tree frogs (Hylidae), Syst. Zool. 24(1):1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moll, E. O., and Legier, J. M., 1971, The life history of a neotropical slider turtle, Pseudemys scripta (Schoepff) in Panama, Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County Sci. Bull. 11:1–102.Google Scholar
  26. Myers, C. W., 1974, The systematics of Rhadinaea (Colubridae), a genus of New World Snakes, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 153:1–262.Google Scholar
  27. Nelson, C. E., and Guttman, S. I., 1973, Serum protein electrophoresis of some Amphibia (Caecilidae, Rhinophrynidae, Microhylidae), Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 44B:423–428.Google Scholar
  28. Paull, D., Williams, E. E., and Hall, W. P., 1976, Lizard karyotypes from the Galapagos Islands: chromosomes in phylogeny and evolution, Breviora 441:1–31.Google Scholar
  29. Pritchard, P. C. H., 1979, Encyclopedia of Turtles, T. F. H. Publications, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  30. Savage, J. M., 1966, The origins and history of the Central American herpetofauna, Copeia 1966:719–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Savage, J. M., 1982, The enigma of the Central American herpetofauna: Dispersals or vicariance?, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 69:464–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schwartz, A., and Thomas, R., 1975, A check-list of West Indian amphibians and reptiles, Carnegie Mus. Natur. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1–216.Google Scholar
  33. Sill, W. D., 1968, The zoogeography of the Crocodylia, Copeia 1968:76–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Steel, R., 1973, Crocodylia, Handbuch der Paläeoherpetologie (O. Kuhn, ed.), Gustav Fischer, Stuttegart-Portland, 16:1–116.Google Scholar
  35. Trajano, E., and Ghiringhello, A., 1978, Comparação entre as proporções corporais de Iguana i. iguana da regiäo das caatingas e da hiléia amazônica (Sauria, Iguanidae), Papéis Avulsos Zool. S. Paulo 32:107–115.Google Scholar
  36. Travassos, H., 1948, Nota sobre a “Mabuya” da Ilha Fernando de Noronha (Squamata, Scincidae), Rev. Brasil. Biol. 8:201–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Vanzolini, P. E., 1968, Geography of the South American Gekkonidae (Sauria), Arq. Zool. S. Paulo 17:85–112.Google Scholar
  38. Vanzolini, P. E., and Valencia, J., 1965, The genus Dracaena, with a brief consideration of macroteiid relationships (Sauria, Teiidae), Arq. Zool. S. Paulo 13:7–35.Google Scholar
  39. Vanzolini, P. E., Ramos Costa, A. M., and Vitt, L. J., 1980, Repteis das Caatingas, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  40. Wake, D. B., and Lynch, J. F., 1976, The distribution, ecology, and evolutionary history of plethodontid salamanders in tropical America, Natur. Hist Mus. Los Angeles County Sci. Bull. 25:1–65.Google Scholar
  41. Williams, E. E., 1950, Testudo cubensis and the evolution of Western Hemisphere tortoises, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 95:7–36.Google Scholar
  42. Williams, E. E., 1956, Pseudemys scripta callirostris from Venezuela with a general survey of the scripta series, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 115:143–160.Google Scholar
  43. Williams, E. E., 1969, The ecology of colonization as seen in the zoogeography of anoline lizards on small islands, Q. Rev. Biol. 44:345–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wood, R. C., and Patterson, B., 1973, A fossil trionychid turtle from South America, Breviora 405:1–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. E. Vanzolini
    • 1
  • W. Ronald Heyer
    • 2
  1. 1.Museu de ZoologiaUniversidade de São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Vertebrate ZoologySmithsonian InstitutionWashington, D.C.USA

Personalised recommendations