The Deterministic Schrödinger Operator

  • Philippe Bougerol
  • Jean Lacroix
Part of the Progress in Probability and Statistics book series (PRPR, volume 8)


Let L be the linear space of complex sequences ψ = (ψn) where n runs through the set of integers ZZ. The operator H is associated to two given real sequences a and b with bn 0 ∀n ε ZZ, and acts on L by the formula:
$$ {\left( {{\text{H}}\psi } \right)_{\text{n}}} = {\text{ }}{{\text{b}}^{ - {\text{1}}}}_{\text{n}}[{\psi _{{\text{n}} - {\text{1}}}},{\text{ }} - {\psi _{{\text{n}} + {\text{1}}}} + {\text{ }}{{\text{a}}_{\text{n}}}{\psi _{\text{n}}} $$
. For a complex number X every solution of the difference equation Hψ = λψ lies in a two dimensional subspace of ob spanned by the solutions p(λ) and q(λ) constructed from the initial values p (X) = q-1(λ) = 1, p-1 (λ) = qo (λ) = 0, such that:
$$ {\psi _{ n}}^{\left( \lambda \right)} = {p_n}^{\left( \lambda \right)}{\psi _o}\left( \lambda \right) + {q_n}\left( \lambda \right){\psi _{ - 1}}\left( \lambda \right) $$
. From now in order to avoid too complicated notations we don’t write the variable X in the solutions of the difference equation. A solution ψ of the difference equation is constructed from initial values ψo and ψ-1. by a product of “transfer matrices” Yn defined by:
$$ {Y_n}\left[ {\mathop {{a_n} - \lambda {b_n}}\limits_1 \mathop { - 1}\limits_{\;\;\;\;\;\;0} } \right] $$
$$ {S_n} - {Y_n}{Y_{n - 1}} \cdot \cdot \cdot {Y_o} if n \geqslant 0 $$
$$ {S_n} - Y_n^{ - 1}Y_{n + 1}^{ - 1} \cdot \cdot \cdot Y_{ - 1}^{ - 1} if n \leqslant - 1 $$
$$ Thus\left[ {\frac{{{\psi _{n + 1}}}}{{{\psi _n}}}} \right] = {S_n}\left[ \begin{gathered} {\psi _o} \hfill \\ {\psi _{ - 1}} \hfill \\ \end{gathered} \right] if n \geqslant 0,\left[ \begin{gathered} {\psi _n} \hfill \\ {\psi _{n - 1}} \hfill \\\end{gathered} \right] = {S_n}\left[ \begin{gathered} {\psi _o} \hfill \\{\psi _{ - 1}} \hfill \\ \end{gathered} \right] if n \leqslant - 1 $$
. The transfer matrices Yn and therefore the products Sn belong to the group SL(2,c) of two by two matrices with complex entries and of determinant one. If A is real then Y and S belong to the subgroup SL(2,ℝ) with real entries. The construction of the solutions of the difference equation by such products of matrices is the essential link between the two parts of this book.


Difference Equation Spectral Measure Adjoint Operator Borel Subset Pure Point 
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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe Bougerol
    • 1
  • Jean Lacroix
    • 2
  1. 1.UER de MathématiquesUniversité Paris 7ParisFrance
  2. 2.Département de MathématiquesUniversité de Paris XIIIVilletaneuseFrance

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