Introduction to Liquid Crystals and Their Molecular Order

  • R. Shashidhar
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 290)


Liquid crystals constitute a state of matter in which the degree of molecular order is intermediate between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. A liquid crystalline phase or mesomorphic phase can be attained either by varying temperature (thermotropic) or by adding a solvent (lyotropic). There are a variety of liquid crystalline phases which can be classified on the basis of the molecular order. Although different techniques like miscibility and optical observation of textures have been used to identify the different types of liquid crystalline phases, the most comprehensive understanding of the nature of the molecular order can be arrived at only by X-ray diffraction studies on oriented samples. The experimental techniques for X-ray investigations on liquid crystals vary depending on the nature of information that one is seeking.


Liquid Crystal Reciprocal Space Nematic Phase Orientational Order Positional Order 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    See, eg: P.S. Pershan, “Structure of Liquid Crystal Phases”, World Scientific, Singapore (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Shashidhar, Chapter 16 of this Volume (1991).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P.G. De Gennes, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 21: 49 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.W. Gray and J. W. Goodby, “Smectic Liquid Crystals”, Leonard Hill, Glasgow, (1984).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.J. Birgeneau and J.D. Litster. J. de Phys. Lett. 39: L399 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Pindak, D. Moncton, S.C. Davey and J.W. Goodby, Phys. Rev. Lett 46: 1135 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.A.C. Gane and A.J. Leadbetter, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78: 183 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.J. Benattar, F. Moussa and M. Lambert, J. Chim. Phys. 80: 99 (1983).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Sigaud, F. Hardouin, M.F. Achard and H. Gasparoux, J. de Phys. 40: C3356 (1979).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.M. Levelut, R.J. Tarento, F. Hardouin, M.F. Achard and G. Sigaud, Phys. Rev. A 24: 2180 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.R. Safinya, W.A. Varady, L.Y. Chiang and P. Dimon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57: 432 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P.G. de Gennes, Solid. State Commun. 10: 753 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    V.N. Raja, “High Pressure and X-ray Studies of Liquid Crystals”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Mysore (1988).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.R. Safinya, “Xray Scattering Study of The Critical Behavior of Binary Liquid Crystal Mixtures”, PhD. Thesis, M.I.T. (1981).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Shashidhar
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Naval Research LaboratoryCenter for Bio/Molecular Science & EngineeringUSA
  2. 2.Geo-Centers, Inc.Fort WashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations