Diffraction Studies of Epitaxy: Elastic, Inelastic and Dynamic Contributions to RHEED

  • P. I. Cohen
  • P. R. Pukite
  • S. Batra
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 163)


Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is widely used for studies of epitaxy. It is an exceedingly surface sensitive technique because at low glancing angles, high energy electrons are able to interact strongly with the last few atomic layers of a solid. Yet for the same reason it is complicated to interpret, and dynamic (multiple) scattering theory must be used to analyze the measured diffracted intensities. Unfortunately these methods require large machine calculations, insist upon perfect surface periodicity, include only elastic scattering, and, in any event, are still in their infancy. Based on experience with low-energy electron diffraction, we expected that the shape of the diffracted beams would be amenable to kinematic analysis. Further RHEED has the important advantage that the scattering geometry can be chosen to allow only a few beams to contribute to the diffraction. Diffraction data were measured during epitaxial growth on vicinal and singular GaAs surfaces. Kinematic analysis is then used to understand the shape of the diffracted beams. We emphasize that no attempt is made to interpret the absolute intensities of the pattern. The role of inelastic and dynamic processes is described. The results indicate that kinematic theory describes the main features of the RHEED intensity oscillations that are observed during epitaxial growth as well as the angular profile of the integral order diffracted beams when growth is stopped. The method is to choose scattering geometries so that the kinematic angular dependence is obtained.


Reciprocal Lattice Intensity Oscillation Phosphor Screen Vicinal Surface Kinematic Theory 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. I. Cohen
    • 1
  • P. R. Pukite
    • 1
  • S. Batra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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