Interactive Nonverbal Categories: A Reappraisal and Elaboration
Although necessarily brief due to editorial limitations, this paper attempts to elaborate on the nonverbal categories established by Ekman and Friesen (1969), inspired partly by Efrón (1941), in the belief that, although they referred only to “any movement or position of the face and/or the body”, the functions that are studied are perfectly common to other nonverbal categories as well. In addition, besides some terminological modifications, body-adaptors are added, while time markers, echoics, kinephonographs, externalizers and identifiers are incorporated as illustrators.
KeywordsTime Marker Verbal Language Display Rule Iconic Gesture Editorial Limitation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Birdwhistell, R. L., 1970, “Kinesics and Context,” University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
- Efrón, D., 1941, “Gesture and Environment,” King’s Crown, New York. Rev. ed., “Gesture, Race and Culture,” Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
- Ekman, P., 1977, Biological and cultural contributions to body and facial movement, in: “The Anthropology of the the Body,” J. Blacking, ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
- Ekman, P., 1978, Facial signs: facts, fantasies, and possibilities, in: “Sight, Sound and Sense,” Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
- Ekman, P., and W.C. Friesen, 1969, The repertoire of nonverbal behavior, Semio., 1: 49–98.Google Scholar
- Ekman, P., and W.C. Friesen, 1972, Hand movements, Jou. of Commu., 22: 353–374.Google Scholar
- Poyatos, F., 1975, Cross-cultural study of paralinguistic alternants in face-to-face interaction, in: “The Organization of Behavior in Face-to-Face Interaction,” A. Kendon, R. Harris, M. Key, eds., Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
- Poyatos, F., 1980a, Interactive functions and limitations of verbal and nonverbal behaviors in natural conversation, Semio., 30: 3 /4, 211–244.Google Scholar
- Poyatos, F., 1980b (press), Silence and stillness: toward a new status of non-activity, Code, 3: 1.Google Scholar
- Scherer, K., 1979, Personality markers in speech, in: “Social Markers in Speech” K. Scherer, H. Giles, eds., Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar