Advertisement

Effect of Surface Contamination on Electric Contact Performance

  • Morton Antler

Abstract

An electrical contact is a junction between two or more current-carrying members which provides electrical continuity at their interfaces. Components having contacts include connectors, terminals, bus bars, circuit breakers, switches, relays, and slip rings. Most electrical contacts are degraded by contamination. To understand why this is so, it is necessary to consider the nature of solid surfaces and the effect of foreign materials on current flow.

Keywords

Contact Resistance Corrosion Product Print Circuit Board Circuit Breaker Contact Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Antler, Field studies of contact materials: Contact resistance behavior of some base and noble metals, IEEE Trans., CHMT 5(3), 301–307 (1982).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Antler, M. H. Drozdowicz, and C. A. Haque, Connector contact materials: Effect of environment on clad palladium, palladium-silver alloys, and gold electrodeposits, IEEE Trans., CHMT 4(4), 482–492 (1981).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. R. Stalica, Corrosion studies of Bell System connectors in central office applications, in: Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Connector Symposium, Electronic Connector Study Group, Inc., Cherry Hill, N.J. (Oct. 25–26, 1978), pp. 376–392.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Friedlander, Smoke, Dust and Haze, J. Wiley and Sons, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Antler, Gold plated contacts: Effect of heating on reliability, Plating57, 615–618 (1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Antler, Fretting of electrical contacts, in: Materials Evaluation under Fretting Conditions, Special Technical Publication, STP 780 (S. R. Brown, ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa. (1982), pp. 68–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.A. Haque, M. H. Drozdowicz, R. A. Frank, and J. T. Hanlon, Extraneous metal deposits from production processes on contact materials, IEEE Trans., CHMT6(1), 55–60 (1983).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. J. Witter and R. A. Leeper, A comparison for the effects of various forms of silicon contamination on contact performance, in: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Electric Contact Phenomena, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Ill. (1978), pp. 371–376.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. E. Tompsett and G. C. Emo, Development of a contact resistance probe for detecting contamination on connector contacts, in: Proceedings of the Electronic Components Conference, IEEE CHMT Society and EIA, Cherry Hill, N.J. (May 14–16, 1979), pp. 243–246.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. P. Sharma and S. DasGupta, Reaction of contact materials with vapors emanating from connector products, in: Proceedings of the Electronic Components Conference, IEEE CHMT Society and EIA, Orlando, Fla. (May 16–18, 1983), pp. 418–424.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Aronstein and W. E. Campbell, Failure and overheating of aluminum-wired twist-on connections, IEEE Trans., CHMT5(1), 42–50 (1982).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Holm, Electric Contacts Handbook, 4th Ed., Springer-Verlag, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. B. P. Williamson, J. A. Greenwood, and J. Harris, The influence of dust particles on the contact of solids, Proc. Roy. Soc. A237, 560–573 (1956).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. W. Hermance, C. A. Russell, E. J. Bauer, T. F. Egan, and H. V. Wadlow, The relation of airborne nitrate to telephone equipment damage, Environ. Sci. Technol. 5, 781–781 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. J. Thwaites, Soft soldering, in: Gold Plating Technology (F. H. Reid and W. Goldie, eds.), pp. 225–245, Electrochemical Publications, Ltd., Ayr, Scotland (1974).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. A. Haque, Temperature-time effects on film growth and contact resistance of a plated copper-tin-zinc alloy used as a surface finish on electronic components, in: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Electric Contact Phenomena, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Ill. (1984), pp. 385–389.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Standard Practice for Construction and Use of a Probe for Measuring Electrical Contact Resistance, B667–80, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Procedures for Measuring the Contact Resistance of Electrical Connections (Static Contacts), B539–80, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. E. Cuthrell and L. K. Jones, Surface contaminant characterization using potential-current curves, in: Proceedings of the Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Ill. (1977), pp. 157–162.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. W. Chaikin, J. R. Anderson, and G. J. Santos, Jr., Improved probe apparatus for measuring contact resistance, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 1294–1296 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Antler, New developments in the surface science of electric contacts, Plating53(12), 1431–1439 (1966).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. P. Asar, F. G. Sheeler, and H. L. Maddox, Measuring contact contamination automatically, The Western Electric Engineer25(3), 32–38 (1979).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Antler, L. V. Auletta, and J. Conley, Automated contact resistance probe, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 1317–1322 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morton Antler
    • 1
  1. 1.AT&T Bell LaboratoriesColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations