Advertisement

Interactions in Coated Refractory Metal Systems

  • Arthur G. Metcalfe
  • Alvin R. Stetson
Conference paper

Abstract

Typical protective coating systems for refractory metals consist of a primary oxide barrier, a secondary barrier or reservoir, and a ternary barrier formed by surface alloying the substrate. Interaction between these various barrier layers and the substrate and atmosphere form the subject of this paper. Interactions discussed in detail include: expansion mismatch; interstitial sink effects; effect of coatings on mechanical properties; diffusion problems that control coating life; and metallic claddings. Methods to solve the complex interaction effects are discussed and illustrated by low temperature oxidation problems of refractory silicide coatings, crack arresting effects of porosity in coatings, coatings containing a molten phase, and low pressure effects.

Keywords

Refractory Metal Inter Metallic Compound Primary Barrier Molybdenum Disilicide Partial Molal Free Energy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ohnysty, B. and Stetson, A. R., Evaluation of Composite Materials for Gas Turbine Engines. Part I, June 1966 — Part II, December 1967. Contract AF33(615)-2574, AFML-TR-66–156.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stetson, A. R., and Metcalfe, A. G., Development of Coatings for Columbium Base Alloys — Part I — Basic Property Measurements and Coating System Development. Part I September 1967. Contract AF33(615)-1598, AFML-TR-67–139.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moore, V. S. and Stetson, A. R., Evaluation of Coated Refractory Metal Foils. Part I September 1963 — Part II December 1964.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geiselman, D., Roche, T. K, and Graham, D. L., Development of Oxidation Resistant, High Strength, Columbium-Base Alloys. AFML Contract A F33(615)-3856. (Progress reports only have been issued.)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cornie, J. A., Development of a Ductile Oxidation Resistant Columbium Alloy. AFML Contract AF33(615)-67-C-1689. (Progress reports only have been issued.)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wimber, R. T., and Stetson, A. R., Development of Coatings for Tantalum Alloy Nozzle Vanes. July 1967. Final Report, NASA CR-54529, Contract NAS3–7276.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jackson, R. E., Tantalum Systems Evaluation, February 1967. Interim Progress Report No. 3. AF33(615)-3935.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fitzer, E., Plansee Proc. 2nd Seminar, Reutle/Tyrol, 1955, Pergamon Press, London 1956.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berkowitz-Mattuck, J., Blackburn, P. E., and Feiten, E. J., Trans. AIME (Met. Soc.) (1965) 233, 1093.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bartlett, R. W., et al, Investigation of Mechanisms for Oxidation Protection and Failure of Intermetallic Coatings for Refractory Metals, Part I — Molybdenum Disilicide. June 1963. ASD-TDR-63–753.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bartlett, R. W., Investigation of Mechanisms for Oxidation Protection and Failure of Intermetallic Coatings for Refractory Metal. September 1965. ASD-TDR-63–753, Part III.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carlson, R. G., Oxidation Resistance of Aluminum Dip Coated Columbium Alloys. Columbium Metallurgy, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1960.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rausch, J. J., Low Temperature Disintegration of Intermetallic Compounds. August 31, 1961. ARF-2981–4.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sama, L. and Ludkin, M. F., Preparation and Properties of CbAl 3, General Telephone and Electronic Laboratories, Inc., Bayside, New York.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wukusich, C. S., Oxidation Behavior of Intermetallic Compounds in the Cb-Ti-Al System. July 31, 1963. GEMP-218.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sama, L., High Temperature Oxidation-Resistant Coatings for Tantalum-Base Alloys, February 1963. ASD Technical Documentary Report 63–160, General Telephone and Electronics.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marnoch, K., High Temperature Oxidation Resistant Hafnium Tantalum Systems. July 1965. AFML-TR-65–240.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hill, V. L., Development of Oxidation-Resistant Hafnium Alloys. Interim reports on Contracts N00019–67-C-0403 and NOw66–0212-d.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moore, V. S., Stetson, A. R., Development of Coating for Columbium Base Alloys — Part HI, Evaluation of the V-(Cr-Ti)-Si Coating for the Turbine Environment, January 1968. AFML-TR-67–139, Part HE.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perkins, R. A., and Packer, C.M., Coatings for Refractory Metals in Aerospace Environments, September 1965. AFML-TR-65–351.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Regan, R. E., Baginski, W. A. and Krier, C. A., “Oxidation Studies of Complex Silicides for Protective Coatings”, Ceramic Bulletin, Vol. 46, pp 502–508.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perkins, R. A., Coatings for Refractory Metals; Environmental and Reliability Problems. 1964 Golden Gate Metals Conference, San Francisco, Vol. Π, Pages 579–590.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Metcalfe, A. G., Unpublished Work, 1964.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Metcalfe, A. G., and Dunning, J. S., Interstitial Sink Effects in the Refractory Metals, October 1965. AIMME Symposium on Refractory Metals, French Lick, Indiana, (in publication).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brentnall, W. D., Klein, M. J., and Metcalfe, AG., Structural and echanical Effects of Interstitial Sinks. October 1966. First Progress Report on Contract NAS 7–469.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brentnall, W. D., and Metcalfe, A. G., Interstitial Sink Effects in Columbium Alloys. Final Report on Contract AF33(615)-5233, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Klein, M. J., Structural and Mechanical Effects of Interstitial Sinks. October 1967. Fourth Quarterly Report on Contract NAS 7–469.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Girard, E. H., Clarke, J. F., and Breit, H., Study of Ductile Coatings for the Oxidation Protection of Columbium and Molybdenum Alloys. May 1966. Final Report on Contract NOw 65–0340-F.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stetson, A. R., and Ohnysty, B., Oxidation-Resistant Coatings for Use on Tungsten Above 4000°F. December 1963. AIMME Conference on Refractory Metals and Alloys III: Applied Aspects, Los Angeles, Part Π, p. 765–778.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lux, B., Stecher, P., and Perlhefter, N., “Protection Contre L’Oxydation du Niobium au Moyen d’une Couche de NbSi2 Impregnee de SnAl” July-August 1966 Annales des Mines, p. 1–20.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brown, B. F., et al, Protection of Refractory Metals for High Temperature Service. January 1961. NRL Report 5581.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Moore, V. S., Mazzei, P. J., Stetson, A. R., Evaluation of Coatings for Cobalt and Nickel-Base Superalloys. September 1967 Task I report on Contract NAS 3–9401.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Metcalfe, A. G., and Rose, F. K., Production Tool for Diffusion Bonding. Final Report on Contract AF33(615)-2304 (in preparation).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Metcalfe, A. G., Welty, J. W., and Stetson, A. R., The Application of Refractory Metal Foils to Reentry Structures. February 1964. ASM Golden Gate Metals Conference, San Francisco, California pp. 667–735.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petrolium Engineers, Inc. 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur G. Metcalfe
    • 1
  • Alvin R. Stetson
    • 1
  1. 1.Solar Division of International Harvester CompanyUSA

Personalised recommendations