Appetites, Aversions, and Addictions: A Model for Visceral Memory

  • John Garcia
  • Frank R. Ervin


Penetrating X-rays constitute a unique and pervasive form of stimulation delivering energy to all tissues, producing highly reactive radicals and ions throughout the organism. However, the responses elicited are quite specific depending upon the site of energy absorption, in accord with the specific-energies doctrine classically promulgated by Müller and Helmholtz. This specificity is apparent not only in simple reflexlike responses, but also in association learning; thus, research with this novel form of energy has produced data which bear directly upon some critical issues in biological psychiatry.


Salty Water Avoidance Reaction Tiger Salamander Temporal Contiguity Peripheral Pain 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Garcia
  • Frank R. Ervin

There are no affiliations available

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