Ictus and Amnesia
Disturbances of memory commonly accompany series of therapeutically induced or spontaneous convulsions. Much scientific attention has been devoted to these phenomena, particularly in psychiatric patients receiving electroshock treatment. These investigations have shown that postictal memory loss is not greatly influenced by premedications, the particular agents used to produce convulsions, or factors related to coexisting mental disorders [1–6], Instead it appears that changes in the physical and electrical characteristics of the seizures themselves are important elements in the production of these postictal sequelae. Modifications of the physical and EEG characteristics of the ictal phase by means of subconvulsive or unilateral ECT or by administration of lidocaine have been shown to reduce the incidence of posttreatment memory loss. Unfortunately though, most of the changes in treatment which reduce amnesia are also prone to reduce therapeutic effectiveness. For these and other reasons, many clinicians have come to regard memory impairment with convulsive treatment as probably a necessary accompaniment of clinical improvement [7–14].
KeywordsElectroconvulsive Therapy Organic Disorder Paroxysmal Activity Convulsive Therapy Electroconvulsive Treatment
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Alexander, L.: The Treatment of Mental Disorder, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1953.Google Scholar
- 3.Kalinowsky, L.B., and Hoch, P.H.: Somatic Treatments in Psychiatry: Pharmacotherapy, Convulsive, Insulin, Surgical, Other Methods (third edition), Grune & Stratton Inc., New York, 1961, p. 137.Google Scholar
- 6.Ottosson, Jan-Otto (editor): Experimental studies of the mode of action of electroconvulsive therapy, Acta Psychiat. Neurol. Scand. 145 (Suppl): 5, 1960.Google Scholar
- 12.Sanford, John L.: Electric and convulsive treatments in psychiatry, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 27:333, 1966.Google Scholar
- 15.Impastato, David J.: Electric and chemical convulsive therapy in psychiatry. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 22:1, 1961.Google Scholar
- 16.Kafi, A., Todd, R.E., and Dennis, M.S.: A comparative study of memory in patients receiving ECT and Indoklon inhalation treatment, 123rd Annual Meeting of Am. Psychiat. Assoc., Detroit, Mich., May, 1967.Google Scholar
- 18.Regestein, Q.R., and Ropper, Peter: The treatment of psychiatric patients by simultaneous use of electroconvulsive and pharmacoconvulsive therapy, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 95:875, 1961.Google Scholar
- 19.Gunn, D.R., Blazic, Charles, Thomas, EX., and Britt, B.A.: Cerebrospinal fluid pressure during fluorthyl convulsive and electroconvulsive therapies, Can. Psychiat. Assoc. J. 11(Spec. Suppl.):S78, 1966.Google Scholar
- 20.Krantz, J.C., Jr., Truitt, E.B., Jr., Ling, A.S., and Speers, L.: Anesthesia LV. The pharmacologic response to hexafluorodiethyl ether, J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 121:363, 1957.Google Scholar
- 21.Chatrian, E.G., and Petersen, M.C.: The convulsive patterns provoked by Indoklon, Metrazol and electroshock: Some depth electrographic observations in human patients, Electro-encephalog. J. 12:715, 1960.Google Scholar
- 25.Small, Joyce G., Small, Iver F., Sharpley, Patricia, and Moore, Donald F.: A double blind comparative evaluation of Indoklon (ICT) and electro convulsive treatment (ECT), 123rd Annual Meeting of Am. Psychiat. Assoc, Detroit, Mich., May, 1967.Google Scholar
- 30.Lorr, M., Klett, J., and McNair, D.: Syndromes of Psychosis, Pergamon Press, New York, 1963.Google Scholar