Experimental Analysis of Intercalary Limb Regeneration Capacity in Urodeles
Intercalary regeneration has been investigated after the removal of the distal part of the stylopodium, the whole zeugopodium, and the proximal region of the basipodium and the immediate dorso-dorsal, ipsilateral transplantation of an autopodium onto the amputation surface of the stylopodial stump in larval Triturus alpestris (Glucksohn stage 53–59) (i), in postmetamorphic young Triturus alpestris (ii), and in Salamandra salamandra as well as in the chimeric limbs of S. salamandra and Ambystoma mexicanum (iii). From all series it is concluded that stylopodial repair and regeneration of the completely missing zeugopodium are different types of developmental processes: Repair of the injured structures takes place by activation of the affected tissues without the loss of their tissue-specific basic determination. In the case of a completely missing segment (zeugopodium) the formation of a mesodermal blastema is required, recruited by dedifferentiated cells released from their tissue bindings, (i) The intercalary regeneration capacity of larval hindlimbs has a negative linear correlation, whereas the deformities of the regenerates have a positive linear correlation, to the larval developmental stages. (ii) In postmetamorphic limbs, intercalation of zeugopodial structures is provoked by digit amputation to induce dedifferentiation within the transplanted autopodium. (iii) In larval S. salamandra, the intercalation of zeugopodial structures is not suppressed by transplantation of mature autopodia onto a stylopodial stump. Chimeric limbs composed of a Salamandra stylopodial stump and an Ambystoma autopodium regenerate intercalary zeugopodia in a higher percentage of cases than the Salamandra autoplastics. In the chimeras no dramatic incompatibility reactions have been observed even after metamorphosis. The reciprocal composition in contrast showed only stylopodial repair. A low continuous resorption of all chimeric Salamandra autopodia took place within a year. Restoration of basipodial elements takes place by repair in proximal direction. Cellular participation of the graft in the intercalating regenerative processes is indicated by the presence of graft pigment cells within the intercalated area.
KeywordsNegative Linear Correlation Blastema Cell Periosteal Cell Vertebrate Limb Ambystoma Mexicanum
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