Position-Dependent Growth Control and Pattern Formation in Limb Regeneration
Results from experimental studies in regenerating and developing amphibian limbs have led us to conclude that growth and pattern formation are coordinately controlled (French et al., 1976; Bryant et al., 1981; Bryant et al., 1987). This conclusion is based on two propositions: (1) cells possess information about their position in the limb (i.e. cells have positional values); and (2) whenever discontinuities exist in the array of positional values, interactions between adjacent cells with different positional values will result in the stimulation of growth and in the intercalation of appropriate intervening positional values. Consequently, growth will cease when all positional disparities have been resolved. As we discuss below, cellular interactions resulting in the stimulation of growth can occur during normal development as a result of cell rearrangements within the limb field, during regeneration as a result of cell migration associated with wound healing, or in experimental situations as a result of grafting to bring cells with disparate positional properties (e.g. anterior and posterior) into contact. Hence, this view can account for the initiation, maintenance and termination of limb growth and patterning during normal development, after amputation, as well as after a variety of experimental manipulations.
KeywordsPositional Information Limb Development Limb Cell Ambystoma Mexicanum Limb Outgrowth
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