The Role of Nerves in Accessory Limb Development

  • Margaret Wells Egar
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 172)


Accessory limbs are a type of ectopic supernumerary growth that may develop after trauma in urodeles. In the experiments described here, the removal of a patch of skin plus the reflection of a large nerve constituted the trauma that induced high proportion of growths in young axolotls. The regenerating axons of the reflected nerve supplied the necessary neurotrophic factor, and the Schwann cells of the same nerve may supply the mitotic cells for blastema formation.


Schwann Cell Wound Epithelium Blastemal Cell Large Nerve Blastema Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bodemer, C.W., 1958, The development of nerve induced supernumerary limbs in the adult newt, Triturus viridescens, J. Morph., 102:555–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bodemer, C.W., 1959, Observations on the mechanism of induction of supernumerary limbs in adult Triturus viridescens, J. Exp. Zool., 140:79–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bodemer, C.W., 1960, The importance of quantity of nerve fibers in development of nerve-induced supernumerary limbs in Triturus and enhancement of the nervous influence by tissue implants, J. Morph., 107:47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Both, N.J. de, 1970, The developmental potencies of the regeneration blastema of the axolotl limb, Roux. Arch., 165:242–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Both, N.J. de, 1971, The regeneration territories — a critical note, Folia Morph., 19:177–181.Google Scholar
  6. Breedis, C., 1952, Induction of accessory limbs and of sarcoma in the newt (Triturus viridescens) with carcinogenic substances, Cancer Res., 12:861–873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brockes, J.P., 1984, Mitogenic growth factors and nerve dependence of limb regeneration, Science, 225:1280–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryant, S.V., D. Fyfe, and Singer, M., 1971, The effects of denervation on the ultrastructure of young limb regenerates in the newt, Triturus, Dev. Biol., 24:577–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bunge, R.P., 1983, Recent observations on the control of Schwann cell functions, Anat. Rec., (Suppl. 1):3–26.Google Scholar
  10. Carlson, B.M., 1967, Studies on the mechanism of implant-induced supernumerary limb formation. I. Histology, J. Exp. Zool., 164:227–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlson, B.M., and Morgan, CF., 1967, Studies on the mechanism of implant-induced supernumerary limb formation. II. The effect of heat treatment, lyophilization and homogenization on the inductive capacity of frog kidney, J. Exp. Zool., 164:243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chalkley, D.T., 1954, A quantitative histological analysis of forelimb regeneration in Triturus viridescens, J. Morph., 92:21–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Egar, M.W., 1988a, Accessory limb production by nerve induced cell proliferation, Anat. Rec., 221:550–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Egar, M.W., 1988b, Does the nerve have dual roles in the production of accessory limbs? in: “Regeneration and Development”, The Proceedings of the 6th International Marcus Singer Symposium, S. Inoue et al., eds., Okada. Printing Company, Maebashi.Google Scholar
  15. Egar, M.W., and Singer, M., 1971, A quantitative electron microscope analysis of peripheral nerve in the urodele amphibian in relation to limb regenerative capacity, J. Morph., 133:387–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Egar, M.W., McCredie, J., and Singer, M., 1982, New forelimb cartilage regeneration after partial denervation, Anat. Rec., 204:131–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Egar, M.W., Wallace, H., and Singer, M., 1982, Partial denervation effects on limb cartilage regeneration, Anat. Embryol., 164:221–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Geraudie, G., and Singer, M., 1981, Scanning electron microscopy of the normal and denervated limb regenerate in the newt, Notophthalmus, including observations on embryonic amphibian limb-bud mesenchyme and blastemas of fish-fin regenerates, Am. J. Anat., 162:73–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lheureux, E., 1977, Importance des associations de tissus du membre dans le developpement des membres surnumeraires induits par deviation de nerf chez le triton Pleuro-deles waltlii Michah, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 38:151–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Maden, M., 1977, The role of Schwann cells in paradoxical regeneration in the axolotl, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 41:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Maden, M., 1981, Morphallaxis in an epimorphic system: size, growth control, and pattern formation during amphibian limb regeneration, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 65:151–167.Google Scholar
  22. Maden, M., and Holder, N., 1984, Axial characteristics of nerve induced supernumerary limbs in the axolotl, Roux’s Arch. Dev. Biol., 193:394–401.Google Scholar
  23. Namenwirth, M., 1974, The inheritance of cell differentiation during limb regeneration in the axolotl, Dev. Biol., 41:42–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reynolds, S., Holder, N., and Fernandes, M., 1983, The form and structure of supernumerary hindlimbs formed following skin grafting and nerve deviation in the newt Triturus cristatus, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 77:221–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ruben, L.N., 1959, The effects of implanting anuran cancer into non-regenerating and regenerating larval urodele limbs, J. Exp. Zool., 128:29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ruben, L.N., 1960, An immunological model of implant-induced supernumerary limb formation, Am. Nat., 94:427–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ruben, L.N., and Frothingham, M.L., 1958, The importance of innervation and superficial wounding in urodele accessory limb formation, J. Morph., 102:91–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ruben, L.N., and Stevens, J.M., 1963, Post-embryonic induction in urodele limbs, J. Morph., 112:279–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singer, M., 1952, The influence of the nerve in regeneration of the amphibian extremity, Quart. Rev. Biol., 27:169–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singer, M., and Steinberg, M., 1972, Wallerian degeneration: A re-evaluation based on transected and colchicine-poisoned nerves in the amphibian, Triturus, Am. J. Anat., 133:51–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stevens, J., Ruben, L.N., Lockwood, D. and Rose, H., 1965, Implant-induced accessory limbs in urodeles: fresh, frozen and boiled tissues, J. Morph., 117:213–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tank, P.W., and Holder, N., 1981, Pattern regulation in the regenerating limbs of urodele amphibians, Quart. Rev. Biol., 56:113–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tassava, R.A., and Mescher, A.L., 1975, The role of injury, nerves and the wound epidermis during the initiation of amphibian limb regeneration, Differentiation, 4:23–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Trampusch, H.A.L., and Harrebomee, A.E., 1969, Dedifferentia-tion and the interconvertibility of the different cell-types in the amphibian extremity, Acta Emb. Exp., 1969:35–69.Google Scholar
  35. Thornton, C.S., and Thornton, M.T., 1964, The regeneration of accessory limb parts following epidermal cap transplantation in urodeles, Experientia, 21:146–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wallace, H., 1972, The components of regrowing nerves which support the regeneration of irradiated salamander limbs, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 28:419–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Wallace, H., 1981, “Vertebrate Limb Regeneration”, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Wallace, B., and Wallace, H., 1973, Participation of grafted nerves in amphibian limb regeneration, J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 29:559–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wallace, H., Maden, M., and Wallace, B., 1974, Participation of cartilage grafts in amphibian limb regeneration, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 32:391–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret Wells Egar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations