A Quantitative Study of Innervation in Newt Multiple Limbs: Nerve Fibre Counts in Multiple Limbs Produced from Either Limb Buds or Mature Regenerating Limbs

  • Chafika Zenjari
  • Emile Lheureux
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 172)


Multiple limbs were obtained from either limb buds or mature limbs. By counting the fibers of the main nerves at homologous levels of both multiple limbs and contralateral single limbs, it was shown that the innervation of each duplicated distal part of the limb was quantitatively similar to the innervation of an equal single limb. Only in the late induced multiple limbs from regenerating mature limbs, the excess of nerve fibers distal to the branching level of the multiple limbs, modified a little if any the fiber amount of the proximal common base. In the early induced multiple limbs from limb buds, a large percentage of the distal fiber excess was found in the nerves of the common base of the limb. These results suggest a possible additional recruitment of neurons only at an early stage of limb formation. They are discussed in connection with results obtained in other vertebrates.


Nerve Fiber Single Limb Neuron Pool Main Nerve Ventral Ramus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Butler, J., Cauwenbergs, P., and Cosmos, E., 1986, Fate of brachial muscles of the chick embryo innervated by inappropriate nerves: structural, functional and histochemical analyses, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 95:147–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Detwiler, S.R., 1920, On the hyperplasia of nerve centers resulting from excessive peripheral loading, Nal. Acad. Sci., 6:96–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Detwiler, S.R., and Lewis, R.W., 1925, Size changes in primary brachial motor neurones following limb excision in Ambystoma embryos, J. Comp. Neurol., 39:291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Egar, M., and Singer, M., 1971, A quantitative electron microscope analysis of peripheral nerve in the urodele amphibian in relation to limb regenerative capacity, J. Morph., 133:387–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Francis, E.T.B., 1934, “The anatomy of the salamander”. Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  6. Freeman, J.M., and Davey, D.F., 1986, The precision of pathway selection by developing peripheral axons in the axolotl, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 91:117–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gallien, L. et Durocher, M., 1957, Table du developpement chez Pleurodeles waltlii, Michah., Bull. Biol. Fr. Belg., 91:97–114.Google Scholar
  8. Hamburger, V., 1958, Regression versus peripheral control of differentiation in motor hypoplasia, J. Anat., 102:365–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holliday, M., and Hamburger, V., 1976, Reduction of the naturally occurring motor neuron loss by enlargement of the periphery, J. Comp. Neurol., 170:311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Harrison, R.G., 1921, On relations of symmetry in transplanted limbs. J. Exp. Zool., 32:1–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lamb, A.H., 1979, Ventral horn cell counts in a Xenopus with naturally occurring supernumerary hind limbs, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 49:13–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lheureux, E., Thorns, S.D., and Carey, F., 1986, The effects of two retinoids on limb regeneration in Pleurodeles watlt and Triturus vulgaris, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 92:165–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Prestige, M.C., 1967, The control of cell number in the lumbar ventral horn during the development of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 18:359–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Prestige, M.C., and Wilson, M.A., 1974, A quantitative study of the growth and development of the ventral root in normal and experimental conditions, J. Embryol. exp. Morph., 23:819–833.Google Scholar
  15. Rowe, R.W.D., and Goldspink, G., 1969, Muscle fiber growth in five different muscles in both sexes of mice. I. Normal mice, J. Anat., 104:265–283.Google Scholar
  16. Sperry, D.G., and Grobstein, P., 1985, Regulation of neuron numbers in Xenopus laevis: Effects of hormonal manipulation altering size at metamorphosis, J. Comp. Neurol., 232:287–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Stephens, N., and Holder, N., 1985, A horseradish peroxidase study of motorneuron pools of the forelimb and hind-limb musculature of the axolotl, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 224: 325–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chafika Zenjari
    • 1
  • Emile Lheureux
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Morphogénèse animaleUniversité des Sciences et Techniques de LilleFrance

Personalised recommendations