Advertisement

Some Current Biochemical Theories Concerning Schizophrenia

  • Herman C. B. Denber

Abstract

Any rational approach to understanding the etiology of schizophrenia must take the form of an integrated overview in the fields of biology, genetics, biochemistry and psychiatry. The human being lives in a social field where the major sensory inputs impinge on the auditory, ocular and olfactory systems. Their transduction into electrical and biochemical events may well serve as the substrate for awareness, and one can assume that the presence of a DNA mediated defect within the general body economy, particularly the brain with its neurons related “in series”, (Teller & Denber, 1968), can result in distortions of the individual’s perception of self, his position in time and space and his personal relationships. Internally generated thoughts and memories may precipitate psychologic phenomena, but their relationship to this problem is completely unknown.

Keywords

Synaptic Vesicle Schizophrenic Patient Psychotropic Drug Brain Serotonin Prior Administration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AGHAJANIAN, G. K., & FREEDMAN, D. X. Biochemical and morphological aspects of LSD pharmacology. In D. H. Efron (Ed.), Psychopharmacology A Review of Progress 1957–1967. Washington, D. C.: Public Health Service Publication No. 1836, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. AMIN, A. H., CRAWFORD, T. B. B., & GADDUM, H. J. The distribution of substance P and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the central nervous system of the dog. Journal of Physiology, 1954, 126, 596–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. AXELROD, J. Enzymatic formation of psychotomimetic metabolites from normally occurring compounds. Science, 1961, 134, 343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BAN, T. A. Ongoing national collaborative studies in Canada: Niacin in the treatment of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 1969, 5, 5–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. BELL, C. E., & SOMERVILLE, A. R. Identity of the “pink spot”. Nature, 1966, 211, 1405–1406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BELLAK, L. The schizophrenic syndrome. In L. Bellak (Ed.), Schizophrenia: A Review of the Syndrome. New York: Logos Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  7. BERGEN J. R. Possible relationships of plasma factors to schizophrenia. In O. Walaas (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Volume II. London: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  8. BERLET, H. H., MATSUMOTO, K., PSCHEIDT, G. R., SPAIDE, J., BULL, C., & HIMWICH, H. E. Biochemical correlates of behavior in schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1965, 13, 521–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. BLEULER, M. A 23-year longitudinal study of 208 schizophrenics and impressions in regard to the nature of schizophrenia. In D. Rosenthal and S. S. Kety (Eds.), The Transmission of Schizophrenia. New York: Pergamon Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  10. BLOCK, W. The mescaline psychosis. In M. Rinkel and H. C. B. Denber (Eds.), Chemical Concepts of Psychosis. New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1958.Google Scholar
  11. BLOCK, W., BLOCK, K., & PATZIG, B. Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven mescalins im tierversuch. II. Mitteilung. Verteilung der radioaktivitat in den organen in abhangigkeit von der zeit. Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie, 1952, 290, 230–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. BONHOUR, A., FISCHER, E., & MELGAR, M. C. Estudios psicofarmacologicos con bufotenina. Revista de Psiquiatria y Psicologia Medica, 1967, 8, 123–143.Google Scholar
  13. BOOK, J. A. Genetical aspects of schizophrenic psychoses. In D. B. Jackson (Ed.), The Etiology of Schizophrenia. New York: Basic Books, 1960.Google Scholar
  14. BOULTON, A. A., & FELTON, C. A. The “pink spot” and schizophrenia. Nature, 1966, 211, 1404–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. BOURNE, G. H., & TEWARI, H. B. Mitochondria and the Golgi complex. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), Cytology and Cell Physiology. (Third ed.) New York: Academic Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  16. BRUNE, G. E. G., & HIMWICH, H. E. Effects of methionine loading on the behavior of schizophrenic patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1962, 134, 447–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. BUSCAINO, V. M. Extraneural pathology in schizophrenia. Acta Neurologica (Naples), 1953, 8, 1–60.Google Scholar
  18. CERLETTI, A., & ROTHLIN, E. Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in mental diseases and its antagonism to lysergic acid derivatives. Nature, 1955, 116, 785–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. COSTA, E., JESSA, G. L., HIRSCH, C., KUNTZMAN, R., & BRODIE, B. B. On current status of serotonin as a brain neurohormone and in action of reserpine-like drugs. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1962, 96, 118–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DENBER, H. C. B. Altérations des synapses axosomatiques corticales chez l’homme, à la suite de psychoses et de divers chocs thérapeutiques. Comptes Rendus Societe Biologie, 1952, 146, 389.Google Scholar
  21. DENBER, H. C. B., MERLIS, S., & HUNTER, W. The action of mescaline on the clinical and brain wave patterns of schizophrenic patients before and after electroconvulsive treatment. Proceedings of the Third International E. E. G. Congress, 1953.Google Scholar
  22. DENBER, H. C. B., & MERLIS, S. A note on some therapeutic implications of the mescaline-induced state. Psychiatric Quarterly, 1954, 28, 635–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DENBER, H. C. B., & MERLIS, S. Studies on mescaline IV: Antagonism between mescaline and chlorpromazine. In N. S. Kline (Ed.), Psychopharmacology. Washington: A. A. A. S., 1956.Google Scholar
  24. DENBER, H. C. B. Clinical considerations of the mescaline-induced state. In M. Rinkel and H. C. B. Denber (Ed.s.), Chemical Concepts of Psychosis. New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1958. (a)Google Scholar
  25. DENBER, H. C. B. Studies on mescaline VIII: Psychodynamic observations. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1958, 115, 239–244. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. DENBER, H. C. B. Drug-induced states resembling naturally occurring psychoses. In S. Garattini and V. Ghetti (Eds.), Psychotropic Drugs. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1958. (c)Google Scholar
  27. DENBER, H. C. B. Some psychodynamic considerations of the research worker in psychiatry. In G. J. Sarwer-Foner (Ed.), The Dynamics of Psychiatric Drug Therapy. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1960.Google Scholar
  28. DENBER, H. C. B. Studies on mescaline XI: Biochemical findings during the mescaline-induced state with observations on the blocking action of different psychotropic drugs. Psychiatric Quarterly, 1961, 135, 18–48.Google Scholar
  29. DENBER, H. C. B., TELLER, D. N., RAJOTTE, P., & KAUFFMAN, D. Studies on mescaline XIII: The effect of prior administration of various psychotropic drugs on different biochemical parameters: A preliminary report. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1962, 96, 14–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. DENBER, H. C. B., & TELLER, D. N. A biochemical genetic theory concerning the nature of schizophrenia. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1963, 24, 1–8.Google Scholar
  31. DENBER, H. C. B., TELLER, D. N., & KAUFFMAN, D. Studies on mescaline XIV: Comparative biochemical effects of different drugs. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1963, 24, 302–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. DENBER, H. C. B. Intracellular localization of psychotomimetic and psychotropic drugs. Doctoral Dissertation. Graduate School of Arts and Science, New York University, 1967.Google Scholar
  33. DENBER, H. C. B., & TELLER, D. N. Studies on mescaline XVIII: Effect of phenothiazines, amphetamine and amobarbital sodium on uptake into rat brain and viscera. Agressologie, 1968, 9, 127–136. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. DENBER H. C. B., & TELLER, D. N. Studies on mescaline XIX: A new theory concerning the nature of schizophrenia. Psychosomatics, 1968, 9, 145–151. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. DENBER, H. C. B. People and Research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. San Diego, California, 1969.Google Scholar
  36. DENBER, H. C. B., & TELLER, D. N. Mescaline XXI: Subcellular localization in adult rats. The Pharmacologist, 1969, 2, 291.Google Scholar
  37. DENBER, H. C. B., & TELLER, D. N. Subcellular localization of mescaline at the synapse. Arzneimittel-Forsch, 1970, in press.Google Scholar
  38. DENBER, H. C. B. Can psychopharmacology advance. Psychosomatics, 1970, 11, 85–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. DURELL, J., & RYAN, J. W. The immune lysis of chicken erythrocytes and its relationship to schizophrenia. In O. Walaas (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Volume II. London: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  40. DURELL, J., & RYAN, J. W. Serum macromolecules in schizophrenia. Investigations of a factor altering chicken erythrocyte metabolism. In A. J. Mandell and M. P. Mandell (Eds.), Psychochemical Research in Man. New York: Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  41. EIDUSON, S., GELLER, E., YUWILER, A., & EIDUSON, B. T. Biochemistry and Behavior. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand, 1964.Google Scholar
  42. FAURBYE, A., & PIND, K. The catecholamine metabolism in schizophrenia. In O. Walaas (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Volume II. London: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  43. FAURBYE, A. The role of amines in the etiology of schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1968, 9, 155–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. FELDSTEIN, A., DIBNER, I. M., & HOAGLAND, H. Two-dimensional paper chromatography of urinary indoles in normal subjects and chronic schizophrenic patients. In M. Rinkel and H. C. B. Denber (Eds.), Chemical Concepts of Psychosis. New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1958.Google Scholar
  45. FELDSTEIN, A. Discussion: Exploration of thecentral nervous system serotonin in humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1962, 96, 117.Google Scholar
  46. FENICHEL, O. The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1945.Google Scholar
  47. FISCHER, E., POCH, G. F., & UDABE, R. U. Psicofarmacologia. Buenos Aires: Lopez Libreros Ed., 1964.Google Scholar
  48. FREEDMAN, D. X., & GIARMAN, N. J. LSD-25 and the status and level of brain serotonin. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1962, 96, 98–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. FRIEDHOFF, A. J., & VAN WINKLE, E. Isolation and characterization of a compound from the urine of schizophrenics. Nature, 1962, 194, 897–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. FRIEDHOFF, A. J., & VAN WINKLE, E. Conversion of dopamine to 3, 4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid in schizophrenic patients. Nature, 1963, 199, 1271–1272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. FRIEDHOFF, A. J., & VAN WINKLE, E. A neurotropic compound identified in urine of schizophrenia patients. In P. Hoch and J. Zubin (Eds.), Psychopathology of Schizophrenia. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1966.Google Scholar
  52. FRIEDHOFF, A. J. Metabolism of dimethoxyphenethylamine and its possible relationship to schizophrenia. In The Origins of Schizophrenia. New York: Excerpta Medica. ICS No. 151, 1967.Google Scholar
  53. FROHMAN, C., LUBY, E. D., TOURNEY, G., BECKETT, P. G. S., & GOTTLIEB, J. S. Steps toward the isolation of a serum factor in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1960, 117, 401–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. FROHMAN, C. E., LATHAM, L. K., BECKETT, P. G. S., & GOTTLIEB, J. S. Biochemical studies of a serum factor in schizophrenia. In O. Walaas (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Volume II. London: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  55. FROHMAN, C. E., WARNER, K. A., BARRY, C. T., & ARTHUR, R. E. Amino acid transport and the plasma factor in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 1969, 1, 201–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. FROHMAN, C. E., WARNER, K. A., YOON, H. S., ARTHUR, R. E., & GOTTLIEB, J. S. The plasma factor and transport of indoleamino acids. Biological Psychiatry, 1969, 1, 377–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. FROHMAN, C. E., HARMISON, C. R., & GOTTLIEB, J. S. The conformation of a unique plasma protein in schizophrenia. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. San Francisco, California, May 8, 1970.Google Scholar
  58. FULLER, J. L., & THOMPSON, W. R. Behavior Genetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960.Google Scholar
  59. GOTTESMAN, I. I. Severity/concordance and diagnostic refinement in the Maudsley/Bethlem schizophrenic twin study. In D. Rosenthal and S. S. Kety (Eds.), The Transmission of Schizophrenia. New York: Pergamon Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  60. GREVELING, C. R., & DALY, J. W. Identification of 3, 4-dimethoxyphenethylamine from schizophrenic urine by mass spectrometry. Nature, 1967, 216, 190–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. GRUMET, G. W. Schizophrenia as a diagnosis and disease process. A theoretical overview. Psychiatric Quarterly, 1969, 43, 456–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. HEATH, R. G., & KRUPP, I. M. Schizophrenia as an immunologic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1967, 16, 1–9, 10–23, 24–33. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. HEATH, R. G., & KRUPP, I. M. The biologic basis of schizophrenia: An auto-immune concept. in O. Walaas (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Volume II. London: Academic Press, 1967. (b)Google Scholar
  64. HEATH, R. G., & KRUPP, I. M. Schizophrenia as a specific biologic disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 124, 37–42.Google Scholar
  65. HENDERSON, D., GILLESPIE, R. D., & BATCHELOR, I. R. C. A Textbook of Psychiatry. (Eighth ed.) New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.Google Scholar
  66. HESTON, L. L. The genetics of schizophrenic and schizoid disease. Science, 1970, 167, 249–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. HIMWICH, H. E. Biochemistry in the schizophrenias. In G. F. D. Heseltine (Ed.), Psychiatric Research in our Changing World. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1969.Google Scholar
  68. HOFFER, A., OSMOND, H., & SMYTHIES, J. Schizophrenia: A new approach. Part II. Result of a year’s research. Journal of Mental Science, 1954, 100, 29–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. HOFFER, A. Adrenolutin as a psychotomimetic agent. In H. Hoagland (Ed.), Hormones, Brain Function and Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  70. HOFFER, A. Relationship of epinephrine metabolites to schizophrenia. In M. Rinkel and H. C. B. Denber (Eds.), Chemical Concepts of Psychosis. New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1958.Google Scholar
  71. HOFFER, A. Treatment of schizophrenia with a therapeutic program based upon nicotinic acid as the main variable. In O. Walaas (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Volume II. London: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  72. HOLLISTER, L. E., & FRIEDHOFF, A. J. Effects of 3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine in man. Nature, 1966, 210, 1377–1378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. HOLLISTER, L. E. Chemical Psychosis. LSD and Related Drugs. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1968.Google Scholar
  74. HUSZAK, I., & DURKO, I. The metabolism of the indole compounds in schizophrenia. In the Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Psychiatry, Volume I. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  75. INOUYE, E. Similarity and dissimilarity of schizophrenia in twins. In the Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Psychiatry, Volume I. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  76. JACKSON, D. B. A critique of the literature on the genetics of schizophrenia. In D. B. Jackson (Ed.), The Etiology of Schizophrenia. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. KEMALI, D., & BUSCAINO, V. M. Indolic substances in schizophrenic patients. In M. Rinkel and H. C. B. Denber (Eds.), Chemical Concepts of Psychosis. New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1958.Google Scholar
  78. KETY, S. S. Biochemical theories of schizophrenia. Sience, 1959, 129, 1528–1532, 1590–1596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. KRINGLEN, E. Schizophrenia in twins. In the Schizophrenia Bulletin N. I. M. H. Bethesda, Maryland, 1969.Google Scholar
  80. KUEHL, F. A., ORMOND, R. E., & VANDENHEUVEL, W. J. A. Occurrence of 3, 4-dimethoxypheny1acetic acid in urines of normal and schizophrenic individuals. Nature, 1966, 211, 606–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. LEHMANN, H. E. Schizophrenia. I. Introduction and history; IV: Clinical features. In A. M. Freedman, H. I. Kaplan and H. S. Kaplan (Eds.), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1967.Google Scholar
  82. MANDELL, A. J., & SPOONER, C. E. Psychochemical research studies in man. Science, 1968, 162, 1442–1453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. MANDELL, A. J., & SPOONER, C. E. An N,N-indole transmethylation theory of the mechanism of MAOI-indoleamino acid load behavioral activation. In D. V. Siva Sanker (Ed.), Schizophrenia Current Concepts and Research. Hicksville, New York: PJD Publications Ltd., 1969.Google Scholar
  84. MANGONI, A., BALAZS, R., & COPPEN, A. J. The effect of plasma from schizophrenic patients on a chicken erythrocyte system. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1963, 109, 231–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. MATTOK, G. L., WILSON, D. L., & HOFFER, A. Catecholamine metabolism in schizophrenia. Nature, 1967, 213, 1189–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. MELLOR, C. S. Fingerprints in schizophrenia. Nature, 1967, 213, 939–940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. NISHIMURA, T., & GJESSING, L. R. Failure to detect 3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine and bufotenine in the urine from a case of periodic catatonia. in O. Walaas (Ed.), Molecular Baisis of Some, Aspects of Mental Activity, Volume II. London: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  88. OSMOND, H., & SMYTHIES, J. R. Schizophrenia: A new approach. Journal of Mental Science, 1952, 98, 309–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. PAGE, R. H. Discussion: Biochemical studies on serotonin. In H. Hoagland (Ed.), Hormones, Brain Function and Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  90. PAGE. I. H. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine); The last four years. Physiological Reviews, 1958, 38, 277–355.Google Scholar
  91. PENNELL, R. B., PAWLUS, C., SARAVIS, C. A., & SCRIMSHAW, G. Chemical characteristics of a plasma fraction which influences animal behavior. In O. Walaas (Ed.), Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Volume II. London: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  92. PERRY, T. L., HENSEN, S., MACDOUGALL, L., & SCHWARZ, C. J. Urinary amines in chronic schizophrenia. Nature, 1966, 212, 146–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. PERRY, T. L., HENSEN, S., & MACDOUGALL, L. Identity and significance of some pink spots in schizophrenia and other conditions. Nature, 1967, 214, 484–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. POLLIN, W., CARDIN, P. V., Jr., & KETY, S. Effects of amino acid feedings in schizophrenic patients treated with iproniazid. Science, 1961, 133, 104–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. POLLIN, W., ALLEN, N. G., HOFFER, A., STABENAU, J. R., & HARUBEC, Z. Psychopathology in 15,909 pairs of veteran twins: Evidence for a genetic factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and its relative absence in psychoneurosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 126, 597–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. RAINER, J. D. A reappraisal of genetic studies in schizophrenia. In D. V. Siva Sanker (Ed.), Schizophrenia Current Concepts and Research. Hicksville, New York: PJD Publications Ltd., 1969.Google Scholar
  97. ROSENTHAL, D. Problems of sampling and diagnosis in the major twin study of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1961, 1, 116–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. RYAN, J. W., BROWN, J. D., & DURELL, J. Antibodies affecting metabolism of chicken erythrocytes: Examination of schizophrenia and other subjects. Science, 1966, 151, 1408–1410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. SAAVEDRA, J. M., & UDABE, U. Quantitative assay of bufotenine in psychiatric outpatients. Psychosomatics, 1970, 11, 90–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. SEDLACEK, J., & SCHADE, J. P. Effect of methionine sulphoximine on some physiological parameters in the developing chick embryo. Currents in Modern Biology, 1969, 2, 320–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. SEEMAN, P. The erythrocyte as a model for studying membrane stabilization by tranquillizers, anesthetics and steroids. Ph.D. Dissertaion. Rockefeller University of New York, 1966.Google Scholar
  102. SHARMAN, D. F. Metabolism of tryptamine and related compounds in the central nervous system. British Medical Bulletin, 1965, 21, 62–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. SHORE, P. A., & BRODIE, B. B. LSD-like effects elicited by reserpine in rabbits pretreated with iproniazid. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1957, 94, 433–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. SIREIX, D. W., & MARINI, F. A. Bufotenine in human urine. Biological Psychiatry, 1969, 1, 189–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. SLATER, E. A review of earlier evidence on genetic factors in schizophrenia. In D. Rosenthal and S. S. Kety (Eds.), The Transmission of Schizophrenia New York: Pergamon Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  106. SMYTHIES, J. R. Schizophrenia. Chemistry, Metabolism and Treatment. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1963.Google Scholar
  107. SOHLER, A., & NOVAL, J. 6-hydroxylation and schizophrenia. In D. V. Siva Sanker (Ed.), Schizophrenia Current Concepts and Research. Hicksville, New York: PJD Publications, Ltd., 1969.Google Scholar
  108. STABENAU, J. R., & POLLIN, W. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia: II. Contributions from the N. I. M. H. study of 16 pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. In D. V. Siva Sanker (Ed.), Schizophrenia Current Concepts and Research. Hicksville, New York: PJD Publications, Ltd., 1969.Google Scholar
  109. SZARA, S., & ROCKLAND, L. H. Psychological effects and metabolism of N,N-diethyltryptamine, an hallucinogenic drug, in Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Psychiatry, Volume I. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  110. TANIMUKAI, H., GINTHER, R., SPAIDE, J., & HIMWICH, H. E. Psychotomimetic indole compound in the urine of schizophrenics and mentally defective patients. Nature, 1967, 216, 490–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. TANIMUKAI, H., GINTHER, R., SPAIDE, J., BUENO, J. R., & HIMWICH, H. E. Psychotogenic N,N-dimethylated indoleamines and behavior in schizophrenic patients. In J. Wortis, (Ed.), Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry, Volume X. New York: Plenum Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  112. TELLER, D. N. Kinetics of binding and inhibition of enzymatic activity by phenothiazine compounds. Doctoral dissertation. Graduate School of Arts and Science, New York University, 1964.Google Scholar
  113. TELLER, D. N., LEVINE, R., WACKMAN, N., & DENBER, H. C. B. Alterations in protein structure and enzymatic activity: By phenothiazine tranquillizers. Abstracts, Seventh International Congress of Biochemistry, Volume V. 1967.Google Scholar
  114. TELLER, D. N., & DENBER, H. C. B. Defining schizophrenia with the techniques of molecular biology. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1968, 29, 93–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. TWAROG, B. M. The pharmacology of serotonin (5-HT). In M. Rinkel and H. C. B. Denber (Eds.), Chemical Concepts of Phychosis. New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1958.Google Scholar
  116. TWAROG, B. M., & PAGE, I. H. Serotonin contents of some mammalian tissues and urine, and a method for its determination. American Journal of Physiology, 1953, 15, 157–161.Google Scholar
  117. UDENFRIEND, S., WEISSBACH, H., & BOGDANSKI, D. F. Biochemical studies on serotonin and its physiological implications. In H. Hoagland (Ed.), Hormones, Brain Function and Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  118. UDENFRIEND, S. Discussion: Biochemical studies on serotonin. In H. Hoagland (Ed.), Hormones, Brain Function and Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  119. WAGNER, A. F., CIRILLO, V. J., MEISINGER, M. A. P., ORMOND, R. E., KUEHL, F. A., & BRINK, N. G. A further study in catecholamine O-methylation in schizophrenia. Nature, 1966, 211, 604–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. WEINER, H. Schizophrenia III: Etiology. In A. M. Freedman, H. I. Kaplan and H. S. Kaplan (Eds.), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1967.Google Scholar
  121. WOOLLEY, D. W., & SHAW, E. A biochemical and pharmacological suggestion about certain mental disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1954, 40, 228–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. WOOLLEY, D. W. Participation of serotonin in mental processes. In M. Rinkel and H. C. B. Denber (Eds.), Chemical Concepts of Psychosis, New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1958.Google Scholar
  123. WOOLLEY, D. W., & CAMPBELL, N. K. Exploration of the central nervous system serotonin in humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1962, 96, 108–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herman C. B. Denber
    • 1
  1. 1.Manhattan State HospitalWards IslandUSA

Personalised recommendations