Drug Induced Alterations in Brain Biosynthetic Enzyme Activity--A Model for Adaptation to the Environment by the Central Nervous System
Neurochemistry in a way similar to other areas of biochemistry has come to the time in its history in which the simple outlining of metabolic paths has for the most part been completed. Enzymology in the classical sense (elucidation of kinetics, co-factor requirements, and characteristics of more or less purified enzymes) has been superceded by a concern for how such complex and interrelated activities are regulated. Regulation would seem to be of utmost importance in understanding the brain, which on one hand must be exquisitely sensitive to subtle environmental alterations and at the same time cannot allow itself to move too far away from a homeostatic or compensated state. It would seem more specifically that the brain, involved principally with information processing, must be able to regulate the rate of biosynthesis and degradation of intercellular messengers. Several metabolic systems can be considered to belong to this class of messengers.
KeywordsTyrosine Hydroxylase Biosynthetic Enzyme Choline Acetyltransferase Optic Lobe Tryptophan Hydroxylase
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- BARONDES, S. H., & SAMSON, F. Axoplasmic transport. Neurosciences Research Progress Bulletin, 1967, 5, 307–419.Google Scholar
- COSTA, E. Turnover rate of neuronal monoamines: pharmacological implications. In A. Cerletti & F. J. Bore (Eds.), The Present Status of Psychotropic Drugs, New York: Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1969.Google Scholar
- KNOX, W. E., AUERBACH, V. H., & LIN, E. C. C. Enzymatic and metabolic adaptations in animals. Physiological Review, 1956, 36, 164–254.Google Scholar
- MANDELL, A. J., & MORGAN, M. Amphetamine induced increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase activity. Nature, 1970, in press.Google Scholar
- MANDELL, A. J., & MORGAN, M. Increase in regional brain choline acetyltransferase activity induced with reserpine. Communications in Behavioral Biology, 1970, in press.Google Scholar
- MANDELL, A. J., MORGAN, M., & OLIVER, G. W. The effects of in vivo administration of antidepressant and stimulant drugs on the specific activities of brain tyrosine hydroxylase and indoleamino-N-methyltransferase. In M. Katz & T. William (Eds.). NIMH Workshop on the Biology of Depression, Washington, D. C., Government Printing Office, 1970.Google Scholar
- MANDELL, A. J., & RUBIN, R. T. Enzyme induction and the psychosomatic hypothesis. In Stress and Adaptation, Forest Hospital Symposium Series, Des Plaines, Illinois: Forest Hospital Foundation, 1965.Google Scholar
- MARTEL, P., & WEINER, N. Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine levels in rat brain: Effect of actinomycin-D. Science, 1970, in press.Google Scholar
- SEGAL, D., & MANDELL, A. J. Behavioral activation of rats during intraventricular infusion of norepinephrine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1970, in press.Google Scholar
- SUTHERLAND, E. W., ROBISON, G. A., & BUTCHER, R. W. Some aspects of the biological role of adenosine-3, 5-monophosphate (cyclic-AMP). Circulation, 1968, 3, 279–306.Google Scholar