Lithium Primary Cells for Power Sources

  • Darrel Untereker


A battery is a chemical device that serves as a source of electrical power. Potential energy contained in the chemicals inside the battery is released by carrying out a chemical reaction in a controlled manner so electrical energy is produced rather than some other form of energy such as heat. Batteries are very important to all of our lives and are one of mankind’s more important developments. They are used for thousands of applications where a portable source of power is advantageous or energy must be stored for future use. Batteries are economically important and millions are sold each month in a wide variety of types and configurations, ranging from very small flashlight cells to large automotive and load-leveling batteries. There are two major classifications of batteries. The first is primary cells or batteries and the second is secondary or rechargeable cells or batteries. The distinction between batteries and cells is that the cell is the fundamental building block of a battery. A battery may have one or more cells. Most often cells are combined in series to yield a battery with a higher voltage than is produced by an individual cell. Sometimes, however, cells are put in parallel to give higher capacity or current capability.


Discharge Product Battery System Load Voltage Implantable Medical Device Lithium Anode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    K. R. Brennen, K. E. Fester, B. B. Owens, and D. F. Untereker, J. Power Sources 5, 25–34 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. D. Helgeson, Medtronic, Inc. Minneapolis, Minnesota, private communication, 1984.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A DeHaan and H. Tataria, U.S. Patent 4388,380 (1983).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. R. Brown, CF. Holmes, and R. D. Stinebring, Corrosion Resistance of Lithium/Iodine Batteries Fabricated in an Extremely Dry Environment, J. Electrochem. Soc. Extended Abstracts 81–2, 228 (1981).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. J. Prosen and J. C. Colbert, NBSIR 77–1310, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. D. Hansen and R. M. Hart, Proceedings of the Reliability Technology for Cardiac Pacemakers Workshop III, NBSP 400–500 (H. A. Schafft, ed.), pp. 10, June, 1979, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. D. Hansen and R. M. Hart, J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 842 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Greatbatch, R. McLean, W. Holmes, and C. Holmes, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26(5) (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. F. Untereker, J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1907 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. R. Brennen and D. F. Untereker, Iodine utilization in Li/I2 (poly-2-vinylpyridine) batteries, in: Proceedings of the Symposia on Biomedical Implantable Applications and Ambient Temperature Lithium Batteries (B. B. Owens and N. Margalit, eds.), Vols. 80–84. The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1980).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    U.R. Buchman, K. Fester, B. Patel, P. Skarstad, and D. F. Untereker, 164th National Electrochemical Society Meeting, Washington, D.C, October 1983, Abs. 42.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Ruben, U.S. Patent 2,422,045 (1947).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Senning, Cardiac pacing in retrospect, Am. J. Surg. 145(6), 733–739 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. Gutmann, A. M. Herman, and A. Rembaum, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 323 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. B. Phipps, T. G. Hayes, P. M. Skarstad, and D. F. Untereker, Lithium/Iodine Batteries with Poly-2-Vinylpyridine Coated Anodes: A Microstructural Investigation, 166th National ECS Meeting, New Orleans, October 1984, Abs. 175.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. C. Stinebring, C. F. Holmes, and M. M. Safford, Determining the Reliability of Lithium/ Iodine Pacemaker Cells Using a Life Test Sample, 163rd National Electrochemical Society Meeting, San Francisco, California, May 1983, Abs. 27.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. D. Helgeson, Design Testing and Reliability of Lithium/Iodine Pacemaker Batteries, 163rd National Electrochemical Society Meeting, San Francisco, California, May 1983, Abs. 28.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Takeda, I. Kishi, K. K. D. Seikosha, U.S. Patent 4,144,382 (1979).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. P. Gabano, U.S. Patent 4,371,592 (1983).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. DeHaan and H. Tataria, U.S. Patent 4,388,380 (1983).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Marincic and J. Epstein, U.S. Patent 4,293,622 (1981).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Goebel and R. McDonald, U.S. Patent 4,416,957 (1983).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Geobel, U.S. Patent 4,418,129 (1983).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Keister, J. M. Greenwood, C F. Holmes, and R. T. Mead, Performance of Li Alloy/Li and Ca/Li Anodes in SOCl2 Cells, 2nd International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Paris, France, April, 1984, paper 27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darrel Untereker
    • 1
  1. 1.Medtronic, Inc.MinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations