Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (NATO ASI F, volume 231)
Methylation, Demethylation, and Deamidation at Glutamate Residues in Membrane Chemoreceptor Proteins
In bacteria, Chemotaxis toward attractants and away from repellents is mediated by a simple sensing system (for a recent review see Stock, 1987). Stimulatory ligands are detected through their interactions with specific receptors at the cell surface. Information from these peripheral chemoreceptor proteins is transduced into a signal that controls the activity of the flagellar motor so that cells move toward favorable environmental conditions. Six cytoplasmic proteins, the Che proteins, function in conjunction with the transmembrane chemoreceptors to control motility. These have been defined both biochemically and genetically. The corresponding che genes are located in two adjacent operons called Mocha and Meche: Two of the six proteins are enzymes that catalyze the reversible methylation of receptor glutamate residues. CheR transfers methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to these glutamate side chains, and CheB mediates the hydrolysis of the γ-carboxyl methylesters that are produced. This review will focus on the chemistry and enzymology of these and related receptor modification reactions.
KeywordsGlutamate Residue Bacterial Chemotaxis Stimulatory Ligand Amino Terminal Domain Aspartate Receptor
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Atkinson, D.E., 1977, “Cellular energy metabolism and its regulation”, p. 75, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Borczuk, A., Stock, A., and Stock, J., 1987, S-Adenosylmethionine may not be essential for signal transduction during bacterial Chemotaxis, J. Bacteriol., 169, in press.Google Scholar
- Drury, L.S., and Buxton, R.S., 1985, DNA sequence analysis of the dye gene of Escherichia coli reveals amino acid homology between the Dye and OmpR proteins, J. Biol. Chem., 260, 4236.Google Scholar
- Leroux, B., Yanofsky, M.F., Winans, S.C., Ward, J.E., Ziegler, S.F., and Nester, E.W., 1987, Characterization of the virA locus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a transcriptional regulator and host range determinant, in press.Google Scholar
- Simms, S.A., Stock, A.M., and Stock, J.B., 1987b, Purification and characterization of the S -adenosylmethionine: glutamyl methyl-transferase that modifies membrane chemoreceptor proteins in bacteria, J. Biol. Chem., 262, in press.Google Scholar
- Stock, A., 1986, Bacterial Chemotaxis: che genes and their products, PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Stock, A., Simms, S.A., and Stock, J.B., 1987, submitted.Google Scholar
- Stock, J., 1987, Mechanisms of receptor function and the molecular biology of information processing in bacteria, Bioessays. in press.Google Scholar
- Stock, J., and Stock, A., 1987, What is the role of receptor methylation in bacterial Chemotaxis, Trends Biochem. Sci., in press.Google Scholar
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988