Modulation of Cellular Transglutaminase: Protease-Induced Activation
Multiple molecular forms of transglutaminase are found in cells and each form is widely distributed. We find a 95 K dalton enzyme associated with membrane fractions. A 50 K dalton enzyme occurs primarily in epidermis and hair follicles. Cells after treatment with proteases show greater transglutaminase activity. The activated enzyme in rat chondrosarcoma cells is one of 95 K daltons, whereas mouse epidermal cells and rabbit endometrium cells after protease activation display enzymes of both 95 K daltons and 50 K daltons. The 95 K dalton enzyme, but not that of 80 K daltons, can be activated by proteases or sulfhydryl compounds after cell lysis. In cells that undergo terminal differentiation, e.g., reticulocytes, megakaryocytes, monocytes, chondrocytes, and epidermal cells, the forms of transglutaminase are modulated. Our findings suggest that these modulations in differentiating cells are the results of transglutaminase post-translational modifications that cause pronounced changes in catalytic activity.
KeywordsHair Follicle Factor Xiii Chondrosarcoma Cell Protease Treatment Mouse Epidermis
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