Equipment and Special Processes
Laboratory equipment for ion exchange experiments is essentially simple, consisting of glass tubes, with sintered discs, or plugs of glass wool to support the resin. The ratio of height to diameter is large, and problems of distributing the water to ensure even flow do not arise. On rare occasions, such as special industrial separation problems (Chapter 8), industrial plant represents a simple linear enlargement of the laboratory equipment, but for water treatment purposes, this type of design is impracticable, since the tall narrow columns would give unacceptably high pumping costs. The majority of large industrial units have bed depths of 4–6 ft, irrespective of their diameter, and the diameter/height ratio becomes increasingly favourable as the overall size increases, frequently being as much as 2:1. Typical units are shown in Figures 45 and 46.
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