Use of the Scanning Electron Microscope for the Identification of Nematodes

  • David J. Hooper
Part of the Nato ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 7)


A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is now available at many research establishments and its use enables the viewing of surface features, particularly of head structures, of nematodes that are not readily seen with the light microscope (LM). However, results from SEM vary greatly in quality being much affected by the type of fixation, processing and mounting involved. Also, specimens are easily lost or damaged during preparation and so SEM usage becomes routine only when adequate technical backup and expertise are available. In some plant-parasitic nematode groups the separation of genera and/or species depends on features seen clearly only with SEM and many other features are much more easily interpreted with LM once they have been determined by SEM. The incidence of use of the SEM in nematode descriptions varies with the group of nematodes involved and/or the region of publication.


Scanning Electron Microscope Scanning Electron Microscope Micrographs Plant Parasitic Nematode Head Structure Amyl Acetate 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Hooper
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Entomology and Nematology Rothamsted Exp. StnAFRC Institute of Arable Crops ResearchHarpendenUK

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