Advertisement

Diel and Seasonal Variation in Growth Rates of Pelagic Bacteria

  • Åke Hagström
  • Ulf Larsson
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 15)

Abstract

With the recognition of bacteria as a trophic element in the aquatic food web, comparable to the algae and not just mediators of degradative processes, growth rates of natural bacteria have become essential information (Pomeroy 1974; Williams 1981). During the last few years several methods to measure growth of bacteria have been developed (Christian et al. 1982; Fuhrman and Azam 1982; Hagström et al. 1979; Moriarty and Pollard 1981; Sieburth et al. 1977), but their advantages and disadvantages are still being discussed. For details see chapter by Azam (this volume). The resulting data on bacterial growth have come from a wide variety of geographic locations and techniques, hence generalizations about the variability of bacterial growth rate in the pelagic ecosystem are still not possible (Azam, this volume; Williams 1981). Circumstantial evidence such as diel variations of bacterial cell volumes and of frequency of dividing cells (Krambeck et al. 1981), however, indicate short term variability. Diel patterns in bacterial heterotrophic activity in the pelagic ecosystem, recorded using tracer techniques (Ammerman and Azam 1981; Spencer 1979), also seem to agree well with the variations in amounts of various dissolved substances seen by direct analyses (Burney et al. 1981; Mopper and Lindroth 1982). As suggested by many workers, e.g., Wiebe and Smith (1977) and Larsson and Hagström (1979, 1982), one of the major sources of organic carbon to bacterial growth could be phytoplankton extracellular release of exudates.

Keywords

Bacterial Biomass Spring Bloom Pelagic Ecosystem Bacterial Growth Rate Diel Variation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ammerman, J. W., and F. Azam. 1981. Dissolved cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the sea and uptake of cAMP by marine bacteria. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 5: 85–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azam, F. 1983. Growth of bacteria, and its relationship to the production of organic matter in the sea. In: J. E. Robbie and P. J. leB. Williams [eds.]. Heterotrophic Activity in the Sea. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Baross, J. S., and R. T. Morita. 1978. Microbial life at low temperature: Ecological aspects, pp. 9–71. In: D. J. Kushner [ed.], Microbial Life in Extreme Environments. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, E. J., D. K. Button, and D. S. Lang. 1981. Competition between heterotrophic and autotrophic microplankton for dissolved nutrients. Microb. Ecol. 7: 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burney, C. M., K. M. Johnson, and J. McN. Sieburth. 1981. Diel flux of dissolved carbohydrate in a salt marsh and a simulated estuarine ecosystem. Mar. Biol. 63: 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christian, R. R., R. B. Hanson, and S. Y. Newell. 1982. Comparison of methods for measurements of bacterial growth rates in mixed batch culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 1160–1165.Google Scholar
  7. Fuhrman, J. A., and F. Azam. 1982. Thymidine incorporation as a measure of heterotrophic bacterioplankton production in marine surface waters: Evaluation and field results. Mar. Biol. 66: 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fuhrman, J. A., J. W. Ammerman, and F. Azam. 1980. Bacterioplankton in the coastal euphotic zone: Distribution activity and possible relationships with phytoplankton. Mar. Biol. 60: 210–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grover, N. B., C. L. Woldringh, A. Zaritsky, and R. F. Rosenberger. 1977. Elongation of rodshaped bacteria. J. Theor. Biol. 67: 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hagström, Å., U. Larsson, P. Horstedt, and S. Normark. 1979. Frequency of dividing cells, a new approach to the determination of bacterial growth rates in aquatic environments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 805–812.Google Scholar
  11. Harder, W., and H. Veldkamp. 1971. Competition of marine psychrophilic bacteria at low temperatures. Antonie van Leewenhock J. Microbiol. Serol. 37: 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Herbert, R. A., and C. R. Bell. 1977. Growth characteristics of an obligately psychrophilic Vibrio sp. Arch. Microbiol. 113: 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johannes, R. E. 1965. Influence of marine protozoa on nutrient regeneration. Limnol. Oceanogr. 10: 434–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krambeck, C., H.-J. Krambeck, and J. Overbeck. 1981. Microcomputer- assisted biomass determination of plankton bacteria on scanning electron micrographs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42: 142–149.Google Scholar
  15. Krempin, D. W., S. M. McGrath, J. Beeler Soohoo, and C. W. Sullivan. 1981. Orthophosphate uptake by phytoplankton and bacterioplankton from the Los Angeles Harbor and Southern California coastal waters. Mar. Biol. 64: 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Larsson, U., and Å. Hagström. 1979. Phytoplankton exudate release as an energy source for the growth of pelagic bacteria. Mar. Biol. 52: 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Larsson, U., and Å. Hagström. 1982. Fractionated phytoplankton primary production, exudate release, and bacterial production in a Baltic eutrophication gradient. Mar. Biol. 67: 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Möhr, P. W., and S. Krawiec. 1980. Temperature characteristics and Arrhenius plots for nominal psychrophiles, mesophiles and thermophiles. J. Gen. Microbiol. 121: 311–317.Google Scholar
  19. Mopper, K., and P. Lindroth. 1982. Diel and depth variations in dissolved free amino acids and ammonium in the Baltic Sea determined by shipboard HPLC analysis. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27: 336–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moriarty, D. J. W., and P. C. Pollard. 1981. DNA synthesis as a measure of bacterial productivity in seagrass sediments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 5: 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Morita, R. Y. 1975. Psychrophilic bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 39: 144–167.Google Scholar
  22. Newell, S. Y., and R. R. Christian. 1981. Frequency of dividing cells as an estimator of bacterial productivity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42: 23–31.Google Scholar
  23. Pomeroy, L. R. 1974. The ocean’s food web, a changing paradigm. Bioscience 24: 499–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rhee, G-Yill. 1972. Competition between an alga and an aquatic bacterium for phosphate. Limnol. Oceanogr. 17: 505–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sargent, M. G. 1975. Control of cell length in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 123: 7–13.Google Scholar
  26. Sieburth, J. McN. 1967. Seasonal selection of estuarine bacteria by water temperature. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 1: 98–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sieburth, T. McN., K. M. Johnson, C. M. Burney, and D. M. Lavoie. 1977. Estimated in situ rates of heterotrophy using diurnal changes in dissolved organic matter and growth rates of picoplankton in diffusion cultures. Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 30: 565–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Spencer, J. J. 1979. Light-dark discrepancy of heterotrophic bacterial substrate uptake. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 5: 343–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Steele, J. H. 1974. The Structure of Marine Ecosystems. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 128 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Wiebe, W. T., and D. F. Smith. 1977. Direct measurement of dissolved organic carbon release by phytoplankton and incorporation by microheterotrophs. Mar. Biol. 42: 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Williams, P. J. leB. 1981. Incorporation of microheterotrophic processes into the classical paradigm of the planktonic food web. Kiel. Meeresforsch. 5: 1–28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Åke Hagström
    • 1
  • Ulf Larsson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden
  2. 2.Askö Laboratory, Institute of Marine EcologyUniversity of StockholmStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations