Advertisement

Bacterial Endotoxins: Relationships between Chemical Structure and Biological Activity of the Inner Core-Lipid a Domain

  • Ernst Th. Rietschel
  • Lore Brade
  • Ulrich Schade
  • Ulrich Seydel
  • Ulrich Zähringer
  • Otto Holst
  • Hella-Monika Kuhn
  • Vladimir A. Kulschin
  • Anthony P. Moran
  • Helmut Brade
Part of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies Symposium Series book series (FEMS, volume 51)

Abstract

Gram-negative bacteria such as the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae express at their surface various amphiphilic macromolecules among which the endotoxins are of special microbiological, immunological and medical significance. Endotoxins are essential for the organization and function of the bacterial outer membrane, and, thus, for bacterial growth and survival. As surface structures, endotoxins represent the main immunoreactive antigens (0-antigens) of gram-negative bacteria, and they are involved in the binding of antibodies and nonimmunoglobulin serum factors, and, thus, in the specific recognition and elimination of bacteria by the host organism’s defense system. Further, endotoxins are endowed with a broad spectrum of biological (endotoxic) activities, such as pyrogenicity and lethal toxicity, and they contribute to the pathogenic potential of gram-negative bacteria. Finally, endotoxins activate B-lymphocytes and mononuclear cells and are potent immunostimulators. By virtue of their biological activities they also seem to be involved in certain physiological host-parasite interactions.

Keywords

Inner Core Chlamydia Trachomatis Outer Core Lethal Toxicity Bacterial Outer Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Luderitz, O., M.A. Freudenberg, C. Galanos, V. Lehmann, E.Th. Rietschei, and D. Shaw. 1982. In: Microbial membrane lipids (S. Razin and S. Rottem, eds.). Academic Press Inc., New York 17:79–151.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brade, L., and H. Brade. 1985. Infect. Immun. 50:687–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lebbar, s., J.-M. Cavaillon, M. Caroff, A. Ledur, H. Brade, R. Sarfati, and N. Haeffner-Cavaillon. 1986. Eur. J. Immunol. 16:87–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galanos, C., O. Luderitz, E.Th. Rietschei, O. Westphal, H. Brade, L. Brade, M.A. Freudenberg, U. Schade, M. Imoto, S. Yoshimura, S. Kusumoto, and T. Shiba. 1985. Eur. J. Biochem. 148:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loppnow, H., L. Brade, H. Brade, E.Th. Rietschei, S. Kusumoto, T. Shiba and H.-D. Flad. 1986. Eur. J. Immunol. 16:1263–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loppnow, H., H. Brade, I. Durrbaum, C.A. Dinarello, S. Kusumoto, E.Th. Rietschei, and H.-D. Flad. 1989. J. Immunol. 142:3229–3238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Feist, W., J. Musehold, H. Brade, A.J. Ulmer, S. Kusumoto, and H.-D. Flad. 1989. Immunobiol. 179:293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Galanos, C., M.A. Freudenberg, F. Jay, D. Nerkar, K. Veleva, H. Brade and W. Strittmatter. 1984. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:546–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brade, H., L. Brade and E. Th. Rietschel. 1988. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. A. 268:151–179.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seydel, U., B. Lindner, H.-W. Wollenweber and E. Th. Rietschel. 1984. Eur. J. Biochem. 145:505–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Imoto, M., S. Kusumoto, T. Shiba, H. Naoki, T. Iwashita, E.Th. Rietschel, H.-W. Wollenweber, C. Galanos and O. Luderitz. 1983. Tetrahedr. Lett. 24:4017–4020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zahringer, U., B. Lindner, U. Seydel, E.Th. Rietschel, H. Naoki, P.M. Unger, M. Imoto, S. Kusumoto and T. Shiba. 1985. Tetrahedr. Lett. 26:6321–6324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rietschel, E.Th., L. Brade, U. Schade, U. Seydel, Ü. Zahringer, S. Kusumoto and H. Brade. 1988. In: Surface stractures of microorganisms and their interactions with the mammalian host. E. Schrinner, M.H. Richmond, G. Seibert and Ü. Schwarz, eds. pp. 1–40, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takayama, K., N. Qureshi, K. Hyver, J. Honovick, R. J. Clotter, P. Mascagni and H. Schneider. 1986. J. Biol. Chem. 261:10624–10631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayer, H. and J. Weckesser. 1988. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 54:143–154.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weintraub, A., U. Zahringer, H.-W. Wollenweber, U. Seydel and E.Th. Rietschel. 1989. Eur.J.Biochem. 183:425–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Imoto, M., H. Yoshimura, T. Shimamoto, N. Sakaguchi, S. Kusumoto and T. Shiba. 1987. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 60:2205–2214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rietschel, E.Th., H. Brade, K. Brandenburg, U. Schade, Ü. Seydel, U. Zahringer, C. Galanos, O. Luderitz, O. Westphal, H. Labischinski, S. Kusumoto and T. Shiba. 1987. In: Detection of bacterial endotoxins with the LAL test. S.W. Watson, J. Levin, Th.J. Novitsky, eds. Progr. Clin. Biol. Res. 231:25–53. Alan R. Liss, Inc. New York.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Labischinski, H., D. Naumann, C. Schultz, S. Kusumoto, T. Shiba, E.Th. Rietschel and P. Giesbrecht. 1989. Eur. J. Biochem. 179:659–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brade, L., E.Th. Rietschel, S. Kusumoto, T. Shiba and H. Brade. 1986. Infect. Immun. 51:110–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brade, L., K. Brandenburg, H.-M. Kuhn, S. Kusumoto, I. Macher, E.Th. Rietschel and H. Brade. 1987. Infect. Immun. 55:2636–2644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brade, H., L. Brade and F.E. Nano. 1987. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:2508–2512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22a.
    Kosma, P., G. Schulz and H. Brade. 1988. Carbohydr. Res. 183:183–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Brade, H. 1985. J. Bacteriol. 161:795–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Helander, I., B. Lindner, H. Brade, K. Altmann, A.A. Lindberg, E.Th. Rietschel and U. Zahringer. 1988. Eur. J. Biochem. 177:483–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Kawahara, K., H. Brade, E.Th. Rietschel and U. Zahringer. 1987. Eur. J. Biochem. 489:489–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Brade, H. and E.Th. Rietschel. 1985. Eur. J. Biochem. 153:249–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Kondo, S., U. Zahringer, E.Th. Rietschel and K. Hisatsune. 1989. Carbohydr. Res. 188:97–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Krauss, J.H., G. Reuter, R. Schauer, J. Weckesser and H. Mayer. 1988. Arch. Microbiol. 150:584–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Brade, L., P. Kosma, B.J. Appelmelk, H. Paulsen and H. Brade. 1987. Infect. Immun. 55:462–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Appelmelk, B.J., V. van Vught, H. Brade, J. Maaskant, W. Schouten, B. Thijs and D. MacLaren. 1988. Progr. Clin. Biol. Res. 272:373–382 (Alan R. Liss, Inc. New York.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    Paulsen, H. and M. Schuller. 1987. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 167:249–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Kosma, P., J. Gass, G. Schulz, R. Christian and F.M. Unger. 1987. 167:39–54.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Luderitz, O., K. Brandenburg, Ü. Seydel, A. Roth, C. Galanos and E.Th. Rietschel. 1989. Eur. J. Biochem. 179:11–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Moxon, E.R. 1985. In:Bayer-Symposium VIII. The pathogenesis of bacterial infections, G.G. Jackson and H. Thomas, eds. pp.17–29, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Brandenburg, K. and U. Seydel. 1984. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 775:225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Brandenburg, K. and U. Seydel. 1985. Thermochim. Acta. 85:473–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernst Th. Rietschel
    • 1
  • Lore Brade
    • 1
  • Ulrich Schade
    • 1
  • Ulrich Seydel
    • 1
  • Ulrich Zähringer
    • 1
  • Otto Holst
    • 1
  • Hella-Monika Kuhn
    • 1
  • Vladimir A. Kulschin
    • 1
  • Anthony P. Moran
    • 1
  • Helmut Brade
    • 1
  1. 1.Forschungsinstitut BorstelInstitut für Experimentelle Biologie und MedizinBorstelGermany

Personalised recommendations