Urolithiasis pp 509-515 | Cite as

Intrarenal Calcium and Oxalate Concentration Gradients in Healthy and Stone Forming Kidneys — The Renal Papilla as the Primary Nucleation Site

  • R. E. Hautmann
  • A. Lehmann
  • H. Osswald


Many investigators have attempted to identify causative factors influencing the pathogenesis and growth of calcium oxalate stones. Calcium and oxalate excretion patterns, urinary proteins, saturation/inhibition indexes, natural inhibitors of crystallization and a host of other metabolites have been studied but none of these parameters unequivocally separates the stone former from the non-stone former. Like numerous predisposing factors better defined risk factors are neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause of calcium oxalate stone formation.


Oxalic Acid Calcium Oxalate Stone Oxalate Concentration Stone Form Kidney Renal Papilla 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Hautmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Lehmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Osswald
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyInstitute for Organic ChemistryWest-Germany
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyRheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule AachenWest-Germany

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