Urolithiasis pp 469-480 | Cite as

Epitaxis between Stone-Forming Crystals at the Atomic Level

  • Neil S. Mandel
  • Gretchen S. Mandel


Numerous treatises have been published on the common components of renal calculi and on the most frequent combinations of those crystalline materials in multicomponent stones. These studies have utilized the techniques of optical microscopy, electron microscopy, chemical analysis, and x-ray crystallography. The most common stone components are summarized in Table I. Renal calculi are frequently composed of more than one crystalline component, and, as shown in Table II, there is a higher degree of incidence for some admixtures than others1. When these multicomponent stones are sectioned, the different crystalline entities are seen to lie in distinct layers, and each distinct layer is, in general, homogenous in crystalline composition.


Uric Acid Calcium Oxalate Crystalline Lattice Renal Calculus Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate3 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neil S. Mandel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gretchen S. Mandel
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineThe Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.The Research ServiceWood Veterans Administration Medical CenterMilwaukeeUSA

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