Urolithiasis — A Study of Drinking Water Hardness and Genetic Factors
A study of the prevalence of kidney stone formers and the relationship of genetic factors and drinking water composition to prevalence was completed in 6 districts in Newfoundland where 82% of stone formers have stones which contain predominantly calcium. One thousand one hundred and twelve adult (age > 25) informants were interviewed in a random sample of households. The mean prevalence of stone formers among males was 15.5% (range 2.3 – 28.6%) and among females, 8.3% (range 3.7 – 11.7%). There was no detectable association between the mean district prevalence (male or female) and the mean district water hardness nor its content of calcium, magnesium, silica, zinc, manganese, iron or copper. However, the range of water hardness values (7–89 ppm Ca CO3) was relatively narrow and did not permit adequate testing of the relationship between drinking water hardness and the prevalence of urolithiasis.