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Urolithiasis pp 329-332 | Cite as

Endemic Bladder Stones in Indonesia

  • J. G. Brockis
  • R. C. Bowyer
  • G. Ryan
  • T. A. Taylor
  • T. Kamardi
  • A. Rizal

Abstract

Bladder stone disease in young children, prevalent in Europe and the United States in the 19th century is now largely confined to a belt of countries stretching from Egypt in the north to Pakistan, India, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Southern China, Indonesia and New Guinea. Occasional cases have been found in Australian aboriginals1. There are also isolated pockets of the disease in South America, but Central America and most of Africa and the Polynesian islands of the Pacific are not affected. An extensive literature on the subject is well summarized by Andersen2. This suggests that there is a broad relationship between cereals in the diet and the incidence of primary bladder stones for many writers remark that the childrens diets are high in plant and vegetable matter and low in animal proteins. Furthermore, Vermooten3 states that where the main cereal eaten is maize, bladder stones are not found. Other factors common to all areas are poverty, large families (though only often one child is affected), a male-female ratio of 10:1 and a peak age of presentation at about 2 years of age4

Keywords

Calcium Oxalate Ammonia Excretion Urinary Calculus Bladder Stone Acid Urate Crystal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Brockis
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. C. Bowyer
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Ryan
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. A. Taylor
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Kamardi
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Rizal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Royal Perth Hospital and the General HospitalPadangIndonesia
  2. 2.The Universities of Western Australia and AndalasIndonesia

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