Urinary calculi have been analyzed at Birmingham University by three separate techniques: autoradiographic analysis using charged particle activation1, electron microscopy2 and a technique hitherto unknown in the field of stone investigations — proton induced characteristic x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This latter technique has been developed as a method for quantitative analysis of biological material for trace and minor elements3.
KeywordsUrinary Calculus Physical Investigation Autoradiographic Analysis Charged Particle Activation1 Charge Particle Activation Analysis
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